Language Testing and Evaluation – A Mini Project

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

 

This chapter consists of background, coverage, and place of conducting the try-out.

 A. Background

A test is a measuring device for assessing the achievement of the objectives in a training system which is a set of questions for which there is an accepted set of correct answers. This is not as easy as what one thinks because it needs certain aspects of doing training system such as preparation, implementation or simulation, accuracy and correctness, and evaluation. Bachman and Palmer (1996) in Alderson (2000) stated that a test development seems to have three components namely design, operationalisation, and administration. A good tester should aware of these aspects in order to achieve the objectives of the test.

Some testers are still shuffling a test up. The test is likely done as an administrative obligation without resting on what a test is done for. They tend to assume that a test is just for determining students success or fail in achieving the standard of certain competencies. In fact that a test is not merely an obedient servant to the teaching like what Davies said (1968). It seems to be too administratively in the teaching and learning matter and it is not likely a good evaluation in the teaching and learning process. Jabu (2008) said that there are such information such as validity; the purpose of the test, difficulty; the characteristics of the examinees, reliability; the accuracy of measurement, applicability; the suitability of format and features of the test, replicability; the development sample relevance, the availability of equivalent of equated forms, interpretability; the nature of the scoring and reporting of scores, the cost of test procurement,economy; administration and testing, availability; the procurement of test, acceptability; the political consideration, and discriminability; the power of the test.

Again, a test is used to evaluate the achievement of learning and or teaching concerns with language learning in order to know and understand what teacher and students have got so far. This paper, therefore, provides the detail of how an evaluation is conducted after doing the test.

Silakan mengunduh file lengkapnya:

Language Testing – Try-Out SMP Pallangga, Gowa, Makassar

A Book Review – Skills for Successful Teaching

Book ReviewBOOK REVIEW

Title: Skills for Successful Teaching
Writers: Barbara Allman, Sara Freeman, Jeffrey Owen, Sally Palow, & Vicky Shiotsu
Publisher: McGrow-Hill Children’s Publishing, USA
Year of Publication: 2000
Thick: 129 pages

Reviewer: Drs. Mukhlis  Rahman, M.Pd, Fernandes Arung, S.Pd, M.Pd, Burhanuddin, S.S, M.Pd, Joseph Tumiwa, S.S, M.Pd, Adi F Mahmud, S.Pd, M.Pd, Gunawan, S.Pd, M.Pd

PENGANTAR

Belajar dan mengajar adalah dua hal yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dalam rana pendidikan. Mengajar tanpa proses belajar adalah hal yang dapat membawa seseorang pada keadaan ‘Paham-salah’ sebagai pengalaman yang lebih ekstrim dari keadaan ‘Salah-paham’. Sebaliknya, belajar tanpa mengajarkan sesuatu yang telah dipelajari adalah hal yang akan membawa seseorang pada keadaan yang tidak seutuhnya, dengan kata lain bahwa kehidupan seseorang sebagai makhluk sosial belum dapat dikatakan sebagai manusia seutuhnya, hal ini menggambarkan suatu sikap dan paradigma berpikir.
Dalam dunia pengajaran, ada beberapa hal penting yang perlu diperhatikan oleh seorang pengajar. Secara umum, ada tiga istilah yang sering digunakan dalam domain pembelajaran yakni Pendekatan, Metode, dan Tehnik pembelajaran. Ketiga hal tersebut merupakan satu paket awal yang harus dipahami oleh seorang pengajar. Namun demikian, terdapat beberapa hal yang tidak kalah pentingnya untuk dimiliki oleh seorang pengajar seperti kemampuan kognitif, kemampuan afektif, kemampuan psikomotor, dan kemampuan interpersonal. Sekalipun seorang pengajar memiliki pendekatan, metode, dan tehnik pembelajaran yang sudah tepat namun jika ia tidak memiliki beberapa kemampuan yang disebutkan di atas maka sia-sialah semuanya.
Buku yang berjudul Skills for Successful Teaching ini, memaparkan beberapa hal penting yang dapat dipahami oleh seorang pengajar sebagai konsep tentang bagaimana seorang pengajar dapat menjadi pengajar yang sukses. Para penulis buku ini mengatakan bahwa sikap adalah segalanya. Mereka memaparkan bahwa ‘sikap yang positif merupakan alat yang yang sangat kuat untuk membantu mengembangkan sikap antusias, harga diri, dan menciptakan suatu atmosfir yang kondisif pada pembelajaran’. Olehnya itu, sikap yang positif merupakan hal yang sangat penting yang harus dimiliki oleh seorang pengajar dalam mengemban tanggung jawabnya dalam mendidik dan mengajar. Sikap yang positif dapat membuka pintu menuju peningkatan kognitif yang signifikan, sikap yang positif dapat membantu seseorang melakukan tindakan-tindakan posotif – psikomotor – yang diharapkan sebagai wujud respon dari tuntutan dan harapan seorang pengajar dari muridnya, dan sikap yang positif juga dapat membantu seseorang menumbuhkembangkan sikap dan perilaku sosial yang positif sebagai wujud nyata dari domain interpersonal.
Dengan membaca dan memahami isi buku ini maka diharapkan dapat memberikan wawasan dan memunculkan ide-ide baru yang berkualitas dalam meningkatkan kualitas pengajaran. Dalam kesempatan ini pula, para pengulas buku ini mempersembahkan resensi atau ulasan yang sekiranya dapat membantu para pembaca untuk melihat inti pembahasan dalam tiap pokok pembahasan.

 

Salam,

Reviewers

File yang lengkap, silakan klik A BOOK REVIEW

LITERATURE UTILIZATION IN ENGLISH LEARNING

Music – The Powerful Influence on Brain (Practical Teaching of Literature)

English Literature sinipping

A. Introduction

The power music has over the human soul is acknowledged long before the fifth century and represented in various myths (Louisa Sakka, 2009).

Most of us must say that music is a need for our soul. Life feels like vacuous without music. It cannot be apart away from humans’ life and they need it in order to declare that they have such a soul which consists of Mind or Thought, Emotion, and Willing. We do not think of people who do not like any kinds of music, if it is, then they should be in Psychological Treatment for further therapy. This life should be full of arts and music is able to enrapture human life. Various function of music that can transfer impetus in human life. Music can make a splash for instance, mostly people especially adolescents are like bees that are interested on glow flowers, music is like the glow of flower that catch people attention to come. It is not only because of the glow but it is all about the anther that contains sugar. The harmonization of lyric and melody is like a flow of river that comes from headwaters to downstream, everything in its path will get wet by water. The case of the human soul, when someone listens to any melody of music s/he must feel it. Its melody will bring him or her to the situation of the lyric or somewhere else. At least, however, he will enjoy to beaten the time of music. Both lyric and melody will get him or her from his or her mind down to the heart. It absolutely makes both mind and heart be as fit as fiddle. The point is that music has a great influence on human life; it can make us happy, enjoyable, and even doing something harmful. Music is a literary study that can be used in learning process in terms of encouraging the students’ motivation, stimulating their brain, and gaining moral and esthetic messages that can be a comprehensible input for them. Teachers should understand that music is important to teach as literature in order to get the students become more motivated, courageous, enthusiastic, gentle, calm, critical, and easy of manner.

B. Problem Statements

It can be said that music is an influenced powerful lyrics and melody that united to create a harmonic wave in breaking through the soul. This harmony has bound our past, present, and future thought and emotion. Mostly teenagers are within this situation where they put themselves for enjoying, pleasure, friendship, social interaction, discourse, sexual relationship, and learning anything they want to gain. F. David Martin and Whitehead said ‘Music more than any other art forces us to feel causal efficacy, the compulsion of process, the dominating control of the physically given over possibilities throughout the concrescence of an experience’ (Richard Elfyn Jones, 2007). The thing is that most of people especially adolescents are not able to psychologically control their physical condition. They tend to be only enjoying music just limited to mere pleasure. They do not know what music is, to what extent music influence on their psychology, and they do not how to utilize this literary in motivating themselves in learning at school or college. Nowadays, some TV channels present musical program in various packages or ways. Even, it is broadcasted in the early morning and seemed that the audiences are mostly adolescents, in fact, that time is the time for school but they appear to jump, sing, dance, and shout out hysterically. It seems that they consider such crowded music important instead of going to school. They tend to be happy being in the crowded people at musical entertainment rather than being at school. They feel unwell-rounded if they are not being there; in contrast, they feel bored when they are being at school. It is not merely because of willing to see the artists but it is more to uncontrolled psychological behavior.

What is then now, are teachers and lecturers not able to provide such situation in order to make their students feel at home when they are being at school? We do not think so. The thing is that both teachers and lecturers are not able to utilize and teach music as literary discourse; even they never provide music in learning process. In fact, ‘music has been successfully applied to ESL learning, both in an early childhood education setting and a middle school setting’ (Howard Research, 2009). It is not then surprisingly that we see most students run away to the situation where they can meet musical entertainment, artists, and new relationships. It is not exclusively their false but we are; both teachers and lecturers.

C. Solution Discussion

After focusing on the problem above, we know that it is a responsible for both teachers and lecturers to trigger an effort to the solution. In the case of solution, we do not merely talk about the pattern of its solution but it should be more comprehensive and developed strategy in order to make vary in the term of ‘How To’. Dealing with this, we would like to present some strategies in providing methods for teaching music as literature in the class room because Vygotsky stated that the real learning is when teachers are able to provide new concepts that out of the students’ understanding. Before going through the strategies, it is better for the teachers to understand some points concerning the teacher’s competency as follows:

  • Teacher should have understanding on Literature; Types, Content and Its Function.
  • Teacher should have understanding on Music as Literature.
  • Teacher should have understanding on Music Influences; Brain, Mind, Emotion, and Willing.
  • Teacher should have Sense of Music.
  • Teacher should be able to stimulate and penetrate Student’s Existence through Music (Classical, Pop, Reggae, Rock, Ska, Jazz, Blues, Dangdut, etc.)
  • Teacher should be able to provide Messages from Music.
  • Teacher should be able to transfer the Power of Music into the Students’ Real Life.

Those  points above are very important to the teachers in applying the strategies. The followings are the practical strategies of teaching Music as Literature:

a. Providing Meaningful Input

When we talk about input then we refer to a Comprehensible Input. Dealing with the Input, there are some things that should be put into account as Comprehensible Input.

Authentic Material.

Authentic Material does not mere refer to original material but also it should refer to autonomous material. Here, we are talking music as an authentic material means that the material should be from local where the students learn. In this step, we provide students with local English Music which is of course gathered or made by own teacher’s creativity. Teacher can record his or her voice in a lyric or s/he may record someone else’s voice then presenting it to the students. The recorded voice should be clear and the lyric should contain or tell about local life of society where the students live or it may contain a folktale from the local.

Teacher is an Input.

The most efficient way to provide comprehensible input is to show teacher as an input. Teacher is the best input for his/her students; s/he can orally present his or her lyrics in songs by performing them directly. In this step, teacher can use any music tool in performing the lyrics of his or hers. In this case, teacher should have good or ideal voice in singing the lyrics. Do not perform this way if the teacher does not have good voice to present because again that the voice should be clear even more the lyrics should be interesting in order to gain the students’ interest on the lyrics. So, the teacher can sing clearly some lyrics or chunks of the lyrics by expression.

Multimedia as an Input.

In learning process, it is important to involve multimedia as the tool of learning. There are many kinds of media that the teacher can use to present any literary circle. Let say an audio visual with an In-Focus. Teacher can use this to present lyrics with a singer for example. By doing this, students will be able to listen to and see how lyrics are heard and how the singer is expressing the lyrics. By listening to and seeing the singer, students can get some comprehensible inputs as the intakes. They can get many messages by doing this. They can also get to know the lyrics influence their soul and motivate them in learning process.

b. Providing Meaningful Output

After doing the first step that the students have done, the next is to be the thing of getting a meaningful output. Students are supposed to produce meaningful output to indicate that they are being in your class and role. Bring them to the next step of your purpose that is to let them produce the meaningful output. In this step, there are some points to put into account:

Getting the students to work on things that matter.

The indicator that the students are with you is that they are able to work on things of what you have primarily presented. As a meaningful output, it is better to let the students to do or perform things of what they have seen or listened to. The better the students perform the things the better they get meaningful output.

Letting the students to have the chance to participate in the production of knowledge.

It is not sufficiently enough to just get the meaningful input, the students need to participate to learn or practice those things to produce knowledge. They should use language in meaningful interaction in order to learn the things. Teacher should get the students participate in using language in interaction. In this case, that the students should be able to perform the lyrics and sing or express the lyrics in their own way. By doing this, students will learn the language by using literature and produce knowledge of it as the meaningful output.

Getting the students to share something in terms of what they have got.

In this step, teacher asks the students to share something. We are sure that when the students have performed or sung the lyrics in their own ways, they must have something to share with. Over all, the students get comprehensible input to meaningful input, they get meaningful output to produce the knowledge then based on the knowledge they have got, and they will be able to share their knowledge of what music is, how the lyrics influence on their brain, how music can motivate them in learning, and how to share it to someone else they meet in interaction.

c. Providing Language Focused Learning

In order to provide a language that focuses on learning, a classroom should provide the opportunity to practice the language. In this step, teacher can provide various ways to get the students practice the language of performing the lyrics. There are some different ways to get this done:

Focusing on sounds, intonation, and stress of the lyrics.

Music as literature absolutely can improve students’ pronunciation. By listening to the lyrics presented, they can hear the intonation, stress, and sounds. In this step, teacher provides the opportunity for the students to focus on the three items. Let them immerse in to the melody by hearing the intonation, stress, and sounds of the lyrics.

Listening to particular words or phrases.

After focusing on the sounds, intonation, and stress, now the time to listen to particular words or phrases in the lyrics. Ask the students to point out what particular words or phrases they have got and then ask them to write them down as glossary.

Hearing and Repeating Behaviorism.

The next step is to sound off all particular words or phrases that they have got and then ask them to repeat after the teacher. By doing this way, they are indirectly practicing how to spell some words or phrases in a good sound, intonation, and stress. Teacher can make directly correctness as soon as they make mistakes.

Expressing discourse matter.

The last step in this language focused learning is to ask the students to express the discourse matter. This means that the students will use the language of lyrics in their daily life of conversation. In other words, they should be able to listen to some lyrics, perform them in their own way, get the messages, and then use them in their daily conversation in order to share something of what they have got from such literary circle.

d. Performing the Fluency Development

In general, the purpose of L2 and FL Learners in this scope is to show the development of their fluency. The fluency then, of course, should cover the four skills; Listening, Speaking, Reading, and writing. To make this cohesively real, it is important to refer to the sub skills. In these sub skills, the students can develop their comprehensible fluency in his/her four skills. Teacher should provide the sub skills of each skill in order to get the students integrated to the target language. In developing the fluency of Reading Skill for instance, teacher can ask the students to read chunks of available lyrics in their own melody. By doing this, the students will be able to pronounce words, make creative lyrics, and read lyric sentence for grasping the messages. Let say the other skill like Writing Skill, ask them to write their own lyrics and give chance to perform the lyrics in a melody. After that, ask them to say the messages and write them down in their own writing. The most point of this step is to get the students integrated into the target language by having fluency in four skills. Teacher should always get the students immerse into the target language by performing the sub skills for each skill because immersing is one of ways in making the students being in practical situation.

D. Possibility of Applying the Solution

François Duc de La said ‘It is easier to be wise for others than for ourselves’. Again, suggestions could be efficient when they are successful to apply. All strategies that have been explained are only suggestion. It will be successful if it is applicable in learning process and it has corroboration.

Even though the strategies seem to be easy but we still need cooperation in both teacher and students in order to make those strategies successful. If we refer to the possibility of applying the strategies, we then might say that all strategies will have significant success for each item of the strategy. Providing meaningful input and output, providing language focused learning, and performing the fluency development will bring the students in a practical situation when they are learning literature, in this case, music.

Meaningful input will make the students understand to what the importance of music is in motivating them. How authentic materials, teachers, and multimedia will become their meaningful input in learning music as literature. They can understand that music as literature is important to develop their ability in learning languages. Meaningful output is the indicator of having meaningful input. Students are able to work on things that they have seen, students have the opportunity to participate in producing knowledge, and students are able to share something of what they have got. All these capabilities will enable them to perform in their own way, enable them to get knowledge and share their knowledge to the others. They will experience something significant, they feel guided in such situation of learning literature and they feel being in independent in doing what have taught to them. The points of language focused learning will enable the students in using the language as the result of learning music as literature. They will be guided directly step by step use of the language. Through the steps, the students will start using the language. From the first step that is to focus on sounds, intonation, and stress will enable them to distinguish the three items which are important in pronunciation. The second step; listening to particular words or phrases will enable the students to grasp any important or key word in the lyric as the message and of course the words or phrases will be their new vocabularies. The third step is to hear and repeat what teacher said. This will enable students to correctly pronounce some words. Repetition is important to make them familiar with the correct pronunciation and also will enable them to efficiently save those pronounced words in their memory. The last step is to express discourse matter. This will enable the students to use the particular words or phrases in interaction or conversation; they know how to use the language appropriately based on the messages of what they have found in the lyrics. They are able to deliver the messages to the others as sharing to.

Finally, the last purpose of learning literature by using music is to develop their ability in four skills and sub skills. The students will be able to listen to the lyrics in melody by focusing on the sounds, intonation, and stress. They are also able to speak by using the language based on the messages they have got from the lyrics. It is not just being able to listen to and speak or use the language orally but they will be able to read the lyrics in order to get the gist of messages and also they are able to write the messages down to improve their writing skill.

E. Closing

As stated that mostly students are more interested in outside music entertainment and this situation should be put into account for the teachers in order to get the students become interested in the class room by teaching practical literature using music. We can conclude that music is important and successfully taught in EFL. Teaching music as literature by using Practical Technique will enable students to get some messages from it and will become their ability to communicate the messages and apply them in their daily life of conversation. Teaching literature practically will make the students enjoyable in learning it in the context of EFL because the students are truly involved in the situation of learning. This paper suggests the teachers to teach literature in practical way of learning and music might be good way in teaching literature. This really motivates and encourages students in learning Literature.

THE DEFINITION OF CURRICULUM – Dictionaries and Experts

CurriculumIntroduction

The curriculum is so wide when it is viewed from the realm of education. Curriculum is various based on the location, culture, social, needs, and implementation. It is the arrangement of what countries and or institutions need to manage the education system grounded on institution’s goal and objectives. Actually, the philosophy of the curriculum tends to define achievement as the goal and it is more relevant to efforts as the objectives. Therefore, some definitions arise to be the description of the curriculum itself and they are not mistaken as long as the definition is not restrain from the fact that curriculum is a provisional set of achievement.

In this article, the writer would like to compile some definitions from various online dictionaries and experts dealing with curriculum. It is not the writer’s intention to make distinction but it is more to compiling on a scientific article by which the readers might use it as references, self research, library research, and or just to find understanding.
By grateful to the webs owners and authors, the writer tries to roll out some definitions of the curriculum as follow.

A. The Online Dictionaries Definition
There are numbers of Curriculum definition on Internet but the writer only looks them up on the online dictionaries.

According to THE FREE DICTIONARY By FARLEX that Curriculum is:

  1. All the courses of study offered by an educational institution.
  2. A group of related courses, often in a special field of study: the engineering curriculum.

According to MERRIAM WEBSTER that Curriculum is:

  1. A set of courses constituting an area of specialization.

According to OXFORD DICTIONARIES that Curriculum is:

  1. The subjects comprising a course of study in a school or college: course components of the school curriculum.

According to DICTIONARY.COM that Curriculum is:

  1. The aggregate of courses of study given in a school, college, university, etc.: The school is adding more science courses to its curriculum.
  2. The regular or a particular course of study in a school, college, etc.

According to COLLINS DICTIONARIES that Curriculum is:

  1. A course of study in one subject at a school or college
  2. A list of all the courses of study offered by a school or college
  3. Any programme or plan of activities.

According to CAMBRIDGE ONLINE DICTIONARIES that Curriculum is:

  1. The subjects studied in a school, college, etc. and what each subject includes: the school curriculum.
  2. National Curriculum – in some countries, the set of subjects that children must study.

According to OXFORD ADVANCED LEARNER’S DICTIONARY that Curriculum is:

  1. The subjects that are included in a course of study or taught in a school, college, etc.

According to YOUR DICTIONARY that Curriculum is:

  1. The definition of curriculum is the combination of courses offered at a school, or all the classes within a certain subject.
  2. A fixed series of studies required, as in a college, for graduation, qualification in a major field of study, etc.
  3. All of the courses, collectively, offered in a school, college, etc., or in a particular subject.

According to BUSINESS DICTIONARY.COM that Curriculum is:

  1. Combination of different training courses arranged in a sequence.

According to VOCABULARY.COM that Curriculum is:

  1. A curriculum is a set of courses designed to give expertise.

According to MACMILLAND DICTIONARY.COM that Curriculum is:

  1. The subjects that students study at a particular school or college.

According to V2 VOCABULARY BUILDING DICTIONARY that Curriculum is:

  1. The courses taught at an educational institution, or the details taught in a particular subject.

B. The Experts’ Definitions
As well as internet, there are many books provide Curriculum definition but this article only draws the definitions from some books that are published up to 2012.

  1. According to Nichols, Shidaker, Johnson, & Singer (2006) that Curriculum is an area of education that is characterized by a lack of agreement about its definition and nature.
  2. According to Wortham (2006) that Curriculum is a planned set of course that is presented to teachers to arrange teaching and learning in certain level of ages.
  3. According to Nation & Macalister (2010) define Curriculum as a guidance in designing courses that consits of outer cyrcle namely Priciples, Environment, and needs that involve practical and theoretical considerations that will have a major effect in guiding the actual process of course production. Inner cyrcle that consists of goals and its center, contents and sequences, format and presentation, and monitoring and assessment.
  4. According to Cattington (2010), curriculum (or curriculum standards) to refer to the standards, benchmarks, and outcomes that delineate the content to be taught and learned in science classrooms.
  5. According to Slattery (2006) Curriculum should be developed time by times to the postmodern curriculum that is radically eclectic, determined in the context of relatedness, recursive in its complexity, autobiographically intuitive, aesthetically intersubjective, embodied, phenomenological, experiential, simultaneously quantum and cosmic, hopeful in its constructive dimension, radical in its deconstructive movement, liberating in its poststructural intents, empowering in its spirituality, ironic in its kaleidoscopic sensibilities, and ultimately, a hermeneutic searchfor greater understanding that motivates and satisfies us on the journey.
  6. According to Lake and Winterbottom (2010) in Kattington (2010), Curriculum is a set of rule that benefits students by providing them with practice in both content and social curriculum through the use of active learning, exploration of interests, civic responsibility, character building, and recognizing and helping thecommunity.
  7. According to Dat (no year) in Tomlinson (2008 Ed) impled that curriculum requires too much to be accomplished within a unit and that their students want a moremanageable and realistic learning goal.

RFERENCES

Bao, Dat. In Tomlinson, Brian. 2008 Ed. English Language Learning Material – A Critical Review.  London: Continuum International Publishing Group

Cattington, Limon E. 2010 (Ed). Handbook of Curriculum Development. New York: Nova Science Publisher Inc.

Lake , Vickie E. & Winterbottom, Christian. 2010. In Kattington, Limon E. 2010 (Ed). Handbook of Curriculum Development. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

Nation, I.S.P. & Macalister, J. 2010. Language Curriculum and Design. New York: Taylor and Francis Group

Nichols, Shidaker, Johnson, & Singer. 2006. MANAGING CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT – A Practitioner’s Guide. Ohio: Linworth Publishing, Inc.

Slattery, Patrick. 2006. Curriculum Development in the Postmodern Era. New York: Roudledge Taylor and Francis Group

Wortham, 2006. Early Childhood Curriculum – Developmental Bases for Learning and Teaching. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

Websites:
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/curriculum – THE FREE DICTIONARY By FARLEX, Accessed 30 September 2013

http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/curriculum – Merriam Webster, Accessed 30 September 2013

http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/curriculum – Oxford Dictionaries, Accessed 30 September 2013

http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/curriculum – Dictionary.Com, Accessed 30 September 2013

http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/curriculum – Collins Dictionaries, Accessed 30 September 2013

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/curriculum – Cambridge Online Dictionaries, Accessed 30 September 2013

http://oald8.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/dictionary/curriculum – Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Accessed 30 September 2013

http://www.yourdictionary.com/curriculum – Your Dictionary, Accessed 30 September 2013

http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/curriculum.html – Business Dictionary.Com, Accessed 30 September 2013

https://www.vocabulary.com/dictionary/curriculum – Vocabulary.Com, Accessed 30 September 2013

http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/curriculum – MacmillandDictionary.Com, Accessed 30 September 2013

http://vocabulary-vocabulary.com/dictionary/curriculum.php – V2 Vocabulary Building Dictionary, Accessed September 2013