Pedagang POLIBEK Memberi Peluang Jabatan Politik Bagi Pelaku Pendidikan

OPINI


Anjing siapakah yang selalu memakan remah-remah roti yang jatuh ke tanah jika bukan pemilik anjing itu? Demikianlah analogi antara pemangku ‘jabatan politik’ dalam dunia pendidikan dan pemberi jabatan polybag-semai-15x15-1politik. Inilah yang saya istilahkan dengan ‘POLIBEK – POLitik BErbasis Kekacauan’ atau ‘Keterpurukan Sistem Politik’. Tidak dapat dipungkiri lagi bahwa beberapa Pejabat; Kepala Dinas Pendidikan dan Kepala Sekolah, lingkup Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah sementara menikmati remah-remah roti majikannya. Bagaimana mungkin sistem pendidikan yang murni diberi ragi politik yang telah rusak jika penerima jabatan POLIBEK adalah penjilat yang handal.

Mari mengulas kembali etimologi Politik. Kita seharusnya membedakan makna frase Politik Pendidikan, Pendidikan Politik, dan Politik dalam Pendidikan. Kita telah mengetahui bersama bahwa kata Politik berasal dari bahasa Yunani πολιτικάpolitika yang berarti dari dan untuk warga Negara. Akar kata dari politika adalah πολίτηςpolites dan πόλις – polis yang masing-masing berarti warga Negara dan bagian kota atau Negara kota. Politik mengacu pada kepentingan warga Negara dengan menggunakan sistematika pencapaian tujuan bersama untuk kepentingan bersama. Pada substansinya, politik adalah hal yang baik jika diaplikasikan sesuai dengan konsepnya. Sebaliknya, politik akan menjadi rusak ketika pelaku politik (politisi) menggunakannya hanya semata-mata untuk kepentingan pribadi atau golongan. Setiap usaha yang dilakukan untuk suatu pencapaian tujuan bersama (semua warga Negara) merupakan konsep politika dan hal ini baik adanya. Sekali lagi, untuk tujuan bersama seluruh warga Negara, bukannya tujuan bersama untuk kepentingan golongan atau partai. Kembali pada tiga (3) frase di atas; Politik Pendidikan, Pendidikan Politik, dan Politik dalam Pendidikan. Secara semantik, ketiga frase tersebut sangat berbeda dalam makna. Frase Politik Pendidikan – mengacu pada tata cara pencapaian tujuan pendidikan. Hal ini tentunya sangat tepat sebab pendidikan membutuhkan proses yang di dalamnya terdapat beberapa sistematika yang digunakan untuk mencapai tujuan umum dan khusus untuk kepentingan pendidikan seluruh warga negara. Frase Pendidikan Politik – mengacu pada bagaimana seluruh warga Negara memiliki pengetahuan tentang politika yang dapat mereka tempuh melalui pendidikan formal, informal, dan atau non-formal. Hal ini juga merupakan hal yang tepat sebab pengetahuan sangat berguna bagi seluruh warga Negara, termasuk pengetahuan politik. Frase Politik dalam Pendidikan mengacu pada independensi antara politik dan pendidikan itu sendiri. Dengan kata lain bahwa politik dan pendidikan adalah dua hal yang berbeda namun saling membutuhkan dalam implementasinya. Dalam frase inilah tampak aplikasi politik yang beragam dalam bentuk atau pola, motivasinya, motif atau tujuannya, serta pelakuknya. Ketika pelaku politik mengenyampingkan konsep dasar politik dan kemudian membawanya ke dalam dunia pendidikan maka tidak heran jika sistem pendidikan menjadi rusak dan berbau politik kotor atau rusak sebab telah politika yang diaplikasikan hanya semata-mata bagi kepentingan pribadi dan atau golongan.

Pertanyaan saya adalah, apakah semua Kepala Dinas Pendidikan dan Kepala Sekolah sanggup mempertaruhkan kehormatan jabatan strukturalnya demi terbebas dari ikatan kontrak polibek dan yang sejenisnya? Apakah semua Kepala Dinas Pendidikan dan Kepala Sekolah sanggup dengan bijak berkata ‘Saya akan melepaskan jabatan saya jika saya masih dibungkus dengan plastik polibek dari politisi tertentu?’ Cobalah untuk mengamati sejenak, apakah kursi polibek anda pantas mendapatkan pujian atau justru tetangga dan kerabat anda berkata ‘Oh, ia menduduki jabatan itu karena ia adalah anggota Kosong Satu atau Kosong Dua’. Bekerjalah sebagai seorang yang profesional dan dudukilah jabatan anada karena anda telah pantas mendapatkannya berdasarkan kinerja anda yang dinilai baik dalam bidang disiplin anda sendiri dan bukan karena andil anda dalam plastik POLIBEK. Marilah membela Negara ini dengan bekerja sesuai dengan bidang ilmu dan profesionalisme kita masing-masing. Alangkah bahagianya diri anda ketika anda menduduki suatu jabatan di luar dari plastik polibek. Jika anda masih menyimpan rapih semua polibek tersebut maka itu berarti anda sementara menyediakan ladang strategis bagi pertumbuhan tanaman ganja – tanaman yang dapat menimbulkan euforia atau rasa gembira yang berlebihan serta hilangnya konsentrasi untuk berpikir, menjadikan penggunanya bermalasan, dan otak mereka akan lamban dalam berpikir. Demikianlah sebenarnya nasib bagi mereka yang hidup dan tumbuh di atas lahan POLIBEK.

Pendidikan tidak semestinya dirusak oleh ragi polibek. Pendidikan adalah pilar atau penopang perkembangan suatu Negara dan warganya. Hargailah pendidikan sama seperti anda menghargai para pendahulu dan orang tua anda masing-masing. Politik Pendidikan dan Pendidikan Politik sangat bermanfaat dalam dunia pendidikan, namun demikian, tidak sepantasnya penyelenggara atau pelaku pendidikan terlibat dalam politik praktis yang semata-mata mementingkan kepentingan pribadi atau golongan yang notabene adalah polibek. Berdirilah sebagai pelaku pendidikan, bukan sebagai pelaku politik praktis yang hanya mementingkan kepentingan pribadi dan golongan.

Mari mencoba untuk sejenak menganalisa dua hal berikut lalu kemudian merenungkannya dengan bijak:

  • Menjadi pelaku pendidikan yang terkungkung dalam POLIBEK milik politisi tertentu,
  • Menjadi pelaku pendidikan yang memanfaatkan politik dan politisi untuk tujuan pendidikan nasional.

Analisa dan pilihan anda sangat menentukan nasib pendidikan bangsa Indonesia yang di dalamnya berada anak-anak bangsa yang juga adalah anak-anak anda sendiri. Apakah anda tega merusak pendidikan bangsa dan anak-anak anda secara tidak langsung dengan menerima jabatan politik sebagai sesuatu yang menggiurkan yang pada dasarnya akan membuat anda bekerja dengan tidak murni bagi pendidikan bangsa ini? Sikap demikian adalah pola pikir yang tidak memahami konsep bela Negara tetapi yang anda lakukan adalah bela pribadi dan bela partai politik.

Beberapa solusi yang dapat disimak dan patut dipertimbangkan dari situasi seperti ini adalah sebagai berikut.

  • Pelaku pendidikan menolak dengan tegas politik praktis dengan kemasan POLIBEK,
  • Pelaku pendidikan perlu meningkatkan dan mendayagunakan profesionalisme dengan tujuan kinerja yang lebih signifikan dan bersahaja agar terhindar dari iming-iming kiriman POLIBEK,
  • Pelaku pendidikan perlu memandang diri mereka bernilai dan berharga agar tidak menjadi karyawan penjual POLIBEK,
  • Pelaku pendidikan seharusnya memberikan sumbangsih jasa dalam bentuk fasilitator pendidikan politik, metode untuk sistematika implementasi sistem politik bersih, dan produk pendidikan hasil dari pemanfaatan politik pendidikan dan pendidikan politik.

Bangsa ini bergantung sepenuhnya pada pelaku pendidikan yang bekerja untuk mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa; mencerdaskan seluruh warga Negara Indonesia termasuk pelaku politik. Alangkah indahnya jika pelaku politik benar-benar berpendidikan dan memiliki kecerdasan intelektual, kecerdasan emosional, kecerdasan spiritual, dan kecerdasan sosial yang dapat mereka peroleh dari sistem pendidikan baik secara formal, informal, maupun non-formal.

Anda dapat melayangkan komentar anda dengan mengisi form di bawah ini.

Advertisements

SERTIFIKASI GURU – Antara Menggarap Ladang Basah dan Menggarap Profesionalisme

OPINI


Suatu ketika di sebuah pertemuan Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran (MGMP) yang diadakan di tingkat kabupaten, hadirlah beberapa guru mata pelajaran X yang rata-rata belum ‘disertifikasi’ sementara pemateri dalam pertemuan itu merupakan guru senior dan pengawas yang hampir semuanya menyandang gelar ‘guru bersertifikasi’. Singkat indexcerita, setelah salah seorang pemateri mempresentasikan materi MGMP dengan menggunakan Power Point (PPt), seorang peserta mendekati pemateri tersebut pada saat sesi rehat. Peserta ini bercakap-cakap dengan si pemateri perihal bagaimana membuat PPt yang menarik untuk ditampilkan saat presentasi. Ia menunjukkan contoh desain PPt yang ia miliki kepada si pemateri dan sontak si pemateri berkata “Wah, bagaimana bisa membuat semua tulisan itu berjalan-jalan (beranimasi) di dalam slide yang ada? Bisakah ajarkan saya bagaimana membuatnya?” Sambil senyum simpul peserta ini memberikan langkah-langkah yang praktis bagaimana seharusnya mendesain PPt yang menarik.

Cerita ini mengingatkan saya bagaimana kualitas dan kapabilitas yang dimiliki oleh seorang guru bersertifikasi dibandingkan dengan guru yang belum bersertifikasi. Inilah sisi lain dari para guru bersertifikasi yang tidak memiliki indikator sebagai qualified to sertified teacher. Lucunya, Ia – si pemateri – bahkan mengatakan bahwa ia belum lihai dalam mengoperasikan sebuah laptop sekalipun. Gambaran ini paling tidak cukup memberikan kesan yang memprihatinkan dari seorang guru yang nota bene sudah bersertifikasi.

Pertanyaannya kemudian adalah apakah sebenarnya sertifikasi itu dan apakah kapabilitas yang sedemikian sudah dapat dikategorikan sebagai sesuatu yang “layak disertifikasi”? Intinya bahwa segala profesionalisme yang layak disertifikasi atau diberikan sertifikat atau surat keterangan tentang kecakapan dalam bidang tertentu adalah mereka yang telah memenuhi standar kualifikasi kompetensi. Ironisnya, masih banyak guru bersertifikasi yang belum memenuhi standar kompetensi yang telah ditentukan.

Dalam peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional tentang Standar Kualifikasi dan Kompetensi Akademik seorang guru dikatakan bahwa guru yang professional harus memiliki kompetensi yang mencakup 4 hal yakni Kompetensi Pedagogik (Pedagogical Competency), Kompetensi Personal (Personal Competency), Kompetensi Profesional (Professional Competency), dan Kompetensi Sosial (Social Competency). Keempat indikator ini harus dimiliki oleh seorang guru terlebih dahulu lalu kemudian dapat diberikan sertifikat atau surat keterangan kecakapan di bidangnya (disertifikasi). Dengan kata lain, jika salah satu indikator tidak atau belum dapat dipenuhi maka seorang guru belum layak untuk disertifikasi.

Lebih lanjut, dalam undang-undang Guru dan Dosen Nomor 14 tahun 2005, isinya dimaksudkan untuk  meningkatkan kualitas pendidikan di Indonesia. Sementara, dalam undang-undang yang sama sehubungan dengan sertifikasi guru yang merupakan salah satu program pemerintah Indonesia untuk mereformasi system pendidikan Indonesia yang dengannya pemerintah berharap agar guru di Indonesia dapat meningkatkan keempat kompetensi tersebut di atas. Namun demikian, perlu digarisbawahi bahwa program sertifikasi di Indonesia secara substansi merupakan program pemerintah yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan upah atau gaji guru sebagai suatu perangsang (incentive). Jika ditinjau dari segi etimologi, kata ‘Sertifikasi’ sebenarnya tidak ideal jika dikaitkan dengan makna yang diberikan pemerintah dalam program tersebut yakni “program pemerintah yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan upah atau gaji guru sebagai suatu perangsang (incentive)”. Kata ‘sertifikasi’ berasal dari akar kata sertifikat yang bermakna ‘surat keterangan’ – sebuah surat yang memberikan penjelasan perihal suatu pencapaian dan kelayakan yang selanjutnya ditandai dengan pemberian sebuah kartu atau sertifikat. Ironisnya, pemegang kartu atau sertifikat (guru bersertifikasi) ini tidak atau belum dapat menunjukkan kacakapan yang signifikan dalam bidang ilmunya masing-masing. Dari sisi Pemerintah, selain sosialisasi dan pengawasan implementasi program sertifikasi ini, perlu juga ditinjau kembali diksi (pemilihan kata) yang digunakan oleh pemerintah untuk mengacu pada makna kalimat “program pemerintah yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan upah atau gaji guru sebagai suatu perangsang (incentive). Saran penulis, lebih tepat menggunakan frase ‘tunjangan profesionalisme’ atau kata ‘insentif’. Dari sisi guru itu sendiri, perlu memahami bahwa jika kemampuan guru masih sama seperti kemampuan sebelum disertifikasi maka sesungguhnya guru tersebut belum layak untuk disertifikasi namun demikian guru tersebut hanya layak diberikan semacam tunjangan profesionalisme dalam bentuk insentif dengan maksud agar dengan insentif tersebut guru dapat lebih meningkatkan dan sekaligus menunjukkan kualitas kompetensinya. Jika guru hanya memahami program sertifikasi itu hanya pada batas pemberian remunerasi dan tidak juga memahami apa maksud pemerintah memberikan remunerasi itu maka tidak heran 1) kinerja guru hanya berujung pada ‘Teachers based Qualified Program – kualitas program berbasis guru’. Kata lainnya bahwa yang berkualitas itu adalah program sertifikasinya bukan gurunya, 2) konsep perburuan guru lebih cenderung mengarah pada penggarapan ladang basah ketimbang penggarapan profesionalisme, maksudnya bahwa guru akan lebih berjerih lelah melengkapi dan menyelesaikan administrasi program sertifikasi untuk mendapatkan remunerasi tersebut ketimbang lebih mengusahakan manajemen profesionalisme, 3) sejak diterbitkannya peraturan pemerintah tentang program sertifikasi guru tampak jelas pendaftaran mahasiswa baru yang memiliki keinginan masuk dalam Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (FKIP) membeludak. Fenomena ini tentu dilatarbelakangi oleh salah satu pemahaman yang keliru terhadap program sertifikasi yang mana mereka berfikir bahwa guru akan semakin makmur dengan adanya program sertifikasi.

Masalah lain yang tampak jelas sehubungan dengan guru bersertifikasi adalah banyaknya pengakuan yang dituturkan oleh rata-rata guru bersertifikasi bahwa mereka sangat kesukaran dalam pengusulan pangkat dan golongan mereka khususnya kenaikan golongan dari IVa ke IVb dimana mereka harus menyerahkan Karya Tulis Ilmiah (KTI) dengan desain Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK) sebagai salah satu syarat yang harus dipenuhi untuk kenaikan golongan. Jika dikaitkan dengan status mereka yang ‘bersertifikasi’ maka seharusnya KTI tersebut bukanlah lagi merupakan kendala bagi mereka. Pertanyaannya adalah mengapa syarat itu justru menjadi kendala bagi guru yang akan mengusulkan kenaikan golongan yang nota bene rata-rata telah disertifikasi? Jawabannya adalah karena guru tidak atau belum memahami konsep, metodologi, dan metode PTK itu sendiri. Jangankan memahami konsep, metodologi, dan metodenya, membuat format PTK saja mereka tidak tahu sehingga mereka tidak tahu bagaimana harus memulainya.

Dengan melihat realita yang ada tentang kinerja para guru, dapat dirumuskan sebuah hipotesis alternatif tidak terarah (non-directional hypothesis): “Semakin tinggi remunerasi yang diiming oleh program sertifikasi maka semakin rendah kualitas dan kemampuan guru bersertifikasi”. Paling tidak, hal ini sejalan dengan hasil penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Arung, Fernandes & Pratiwi, Helmy (2014) tentang Pengaruh Efikasi Diri Guru Bahasa Inggris Bersertifikasi dan Non-sertifikasi Terhadap Pengajaran. Mereka menemukan bahwa 1) tidak ada perbedaan efikasi diri yang dimiliki oleh kedua kelompok guru tersebut. Dengan kata lain bahwa kedua kelompok guru ini (bersertifikasi & non-sertifikasi) berada pada level efikasi diri yang sama. 2) tidak ada pengaruh efikasi diri yang dimiliki ole kedua kelompok guru tersebut terhadap pengajaran yang mereka lakukan. Anehnya, hasil tes korelasi menunjukkan bahwa jika dilihat dari segi apakah ada hubungan atau tidak antara efikasi diri yang dimiliki oleh kedua kelompok guru tersebut terhadap pengajarannya maka justru kelompok guru non-sertifikasi lebih memiliki korelasi yang baik antara efikasi diri yang mereka miliki dengan kemampuan mengajarnya dibandingkan dengan kelompok guru bersertifikasi. Hal ini memungkinkan peneliti untuk menyimpulkan bahwa kondisi seperti ini disebabkan oleh rasa percaya diri dan motivasi kerja para guru non-sertifikasi yang cukup tinggi menyebabkan pengajaran yang mereka lakukan cukup berhasil yang sekalipun motif mereka melakukan pekerjaan itu didasarkan pada harapan lolos sertifikasi.

Masyarakat Indonesia, khususnya guru seharusnya memahami bahwa ketika Negara telah memberikan sumbangsih yang dapat dimanfaatkan oleh guru untuk menunjang kualitas dan kemampuan diri mereka, maka manfaatkanlah hal itu dengan sebaik-baiknya untuk kemajuan pendidikan di Indonesia tanpa harus lebih dahulu memikirkan besaran rupiah upah dari program pemerintah tersebut. Para guru dan dosen harus mengingat 2 frase berikut untuk 2 konteks yang berbeda: “Ketika anda masih menjadi seorang mahasiswa maka frase yang menjadi renungan anda adalah belajar-mengajar dan ketika anda telah menjadi seorang guru dan atau dosen maka frase yang akan menjadi renungan anda adalah mengajar-belajar”. Implikasinya adalah ketika anda masih berstatus mahasiswa maka hal yang selalu anda lakukan adalah belajar dan mengajar, anda belajar karena tanggung jawab anda sebagai mahasiswa untuk syarat kelulusan anda dan sementara itu pula anda mengajarkan apa yang anda dapatkan saat belajar kepada orang lain. Agak berbeda dengan status anda sebagai guru dan atau dosen, tugas pokok anda adalah mengajar karena itu adalah tanggung jawab anda sebagai tenaga pengajar namun anda jangan lupa untuk terus meningkatkan kulaitas dan kemampuan diri anda dengan belajar secara terus-menerus untuk menopang keempat kompetensi anda sehingga pada akhirnya anda layak untuk disertifikasi.

Anda dapat melayangkan komentar anda dengan mengisi form di bawah ini.

Language Testing and Evaluation – A Mini Project

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

 

This chapter consists of background, coverage, and place of conducting the try-out.

 A. Background

A test is a measuring device for assessing the achievement of the objectives in a training system which is a set of questions for which there is an accepted set of correct answers. This is not as easy as what one thinks because it needs certain aspects of doing training system such as preparation, implementation or simulation, accuracy and correctness, and evaluation. Bachman and Palmer (1996) in Alderson (2000) stated that a test development seems to have three components namely design, operationalisation, and administration. A good tester should aware of these aspects in order to achieve the objectives of the test.

Some testers are still shuffling a test up. The test is likely done as an administrative obligation without resting on what a test is done for. They tend to assume that a test is just for determining students success or fail in achieving the standard of certain competencies. In fact that a test is not merely an obedient servant to the teaching like what Davies said (1968). It seems to be too administratively in the teaching and learning matter and it is not likely a good evaluation in the teaching and learning process. Jabu (2008) said that there are such information such as validity; the purpose of the test, difficulty; the characteristics of the examinees, reliability; the accuracy of measurement, applicability; the suitability of format and features of the test, replicability; the development sample relevance, the availability of equivalent of equated forms, interpretability; the nature of the scoring and reporting of scores, the cost of test procurement,economy; administration and testing, availability; the procurement of test, acceptability; the political consideration, and discriminability; the power of the test.

Again, a test is used to evaluate the achievement of learning and or teaching concerns with language learning in order to know and understand what teacher and students have got so far. This paper, therefore, provides the detail of how an evaluation is conducted after doing the test.

Silakan mengunduh file lengkapnya:

Language Testing – Try-Out SMP Pallangga, Gowa, Makassar

A Book Review – Skills for Successful Teaching

Book ReviewBOOK REVIEW

Title: Skills for Successful Teaching
Writers: Barbara Allman, Sara Freeman, Jeffrey Owen, Sally Palow, & Vicky Shiotsu
Publisher: McGrow-Hill Children’s Publishing, USA
Year of Publication: 2000
Thick: 129 pages

Reviewer: Drs. Mukhlis  Rahman, M.Pd, Fernandes Arung, S.Pd, M.Pd, Burhanuddin, S.S, M.Pd, Joseph Tumiwa, S.S, M.Pd, Adi F Mahmud, S.Pd, M.Pd, Gunawan, S.Pd, M.Pd

PENGANTAR

Belajar dan mengajar adalah dua hal yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dalam rana pendidikan. Mengajar tanpa proses belajar adalah hal yang dapat membawa seseorang pada keadaan ‘Paham-salah’ sebagai pengalaman yang lebih ekstrim dari keadaan ‘Salah-paham’. Sebaliknya, belajar tanpa mengajarkan sesuatu yang telah dipelajari adalah hal yang akan membawa seseorang pada keadaan yang tidak seutuhnya, dengan kata lain bahwa kehidupan seseorang sebagai makhluk sosial belum dapat dikatakan sebagai manusia seutuhnya, hal ini menggambarkan suatu sikap dan paradigma berpikir.
Dalam dunia pengajaran, ada beberapa hal penting yang perlu diperhatikan oleh seorang pengajar. Secara umum, ada tiga istilah yang sering digunakan dalam domain pembelajaran yakni Pendekatan, Metode, dan Tehnik pembelajaran. Ketiga hal tersebut merupakan satu paket awal yang harus dipahami oleh seorang pengajar. Namun demikian, terdapat beberapa hal yang tidak kalah pentingnya untuk dimiliki oleh seorang pengajar seperti kemampuan kognitif, kemampuan afektif, kemampuan psikomotor, dan kemampuan interpersonal. Sekalipun seorang pengajar memiliki pendekatan, metode, dan tehnik pembelajaran yang sudah tepat namun jika ia tidak memiliki beberapa kemampuan yang disebutkan di atas maka sia-sialah semuanya.
Buku yang berjudul Skills for Successful Teaching ini, memaparkan beberapa hal penting yang dapat dipahami oleh seorang pengajar sebagai konsep tentang bagaimana seorang pengajar dapat menjadi pengajar yang sukses. Para penulis buku ini mengatakan bahwa sikap adalah segalanya. Mereka memaparkan bahwa ‘sikap yang positif merupakan alat yang yang sangat kuat untuk membantu mengembangkan sikap antusias, harga diri, dan menciptakan suatu atmosfir yang kondisif pada pembelajaran’. Olehnya itu, sikap yang positif merupakan hal yang sangat penting yang harus dimiliki oleh seorang pengajar dalam mengemban tanggung jawabnya dalam mendidik dan mengajar. Sikap yang positif dapat membuka pintu menuju peningkatan kognitif yang signifikan, sikap yang positif dapat membantu seseorang melakukan tindakan-tindakan posotif – psikomotor – yang diharapkan sebagai wujud respon dari tuntutan dan harapan seorang pengajar dari muridnya, dan sikap yang positif juga dapat membantu seseorang menumbuhkembangkan sikap dan perilaku sosial yang positif sebagai wujud nyata dari domain interpersonal.
Dengan membaca dan memahami isi buku ini maka diharapkan dapat memberikan wawasan dan memunculkan ide-ide baru yang berkualitas dalam meningkatkan kualitas pengajaran. Dalam kesempatan ini pula, para pengulas buku ini mempersembahkan resensi atau ulasan yang sekiranya dapat membantu para pembaca untuk melihat inti pembahasan dalam tiap pokok pembahasan.

 

Salam,

Reviewers

File yang lengkap, silakan klik A BOOK REVIEW

LITERATURE UTILIZATION IN ENGLISH LEARNING

Music – The Powerful Influence on Brain (Practical Teaching of Literature)

English Literature sinipping

A. Introduction

The power music has over the human soul is acknowledged long before the fifth century and represented in various myths (Louisa Sakka, 2009).

Most of us must say that music is a need for our soul. Life feels like vacuous without music. It cannot be apart away from humans’ life and they need it in order to declare that they have such a soul which consists of Mind or Thought, Emotion, and Willing. We do not think of people who do not like any kinds of music, if it is, then they should be in Psychological Treatment for further therapy. This life should be full of arts and music is able to enrapture human life. Various function of music that can transfer impetus in human life. Music can make a splash for instance, mostly people especially adolescents are like bees that are interested on glow flowers, music is like the glow of flower that catch people attention to come. It is not only because of the glow but it is all about the anther that contains sugar. The harmonization of lyric and melody is like a flow of river that comes from headwaters to downstream, everything in its path will get wet by water. The case of the human soul, when someone listens to any melody of music s/he must feel it. Its melody will bring him or her to the situation of the lyric or somewhere else. At least, however, he will enjoy to beaten the time of music. Both lyric and melody will get him or her from his or her mind down to the heart. It absolutely makes both mind and heart be as fit as fiddle. The point is that music has a great influence on human life; it can make us happy, enjoyable, and even doing something harmful. Music is a literary study that can be used in learning process in terms of encouraging the students’ motivation, stimulating their brain, and gaining moral and esthetic messages that can be a comprehensible input for them. Teachers should understand that music is important to teach as literature in order to get the students become more motivated, courageous, enthusiastic, gentle, calm, critical, and easy of manner.

B. Problem Statements

It can be said that music is an influenced powerful lyrics and melody that united to create a harmonic wave in breaking through the soul. This harmony has bound our past, present, and future thought and emotion. Mostly teenagers are within this situation where they put themselves for enjoying, pleasure, friendship, social interaction, discourse, sexual relationship, and learning anything they want to gain. F. David Martin and Whitehead said ‘Music more than any other art forces us to feel causal efficacy, the compulsion of process, the dominating control of the physically given over possibilities throughout the concrescence of an experience’ (Richard Elfyn Jones, 2007). The thing is that most of people especially adolescents are not able to psychologically control their physical condition. They tend to be only enjoying music just limited to mere pleasure. They do not know what music is, to what extent music influence on their psychology, and they do not how to utilize this literary in motivating themselves in learning at school or college. Nowadays, some TV channels present musical program in various packages or ways. Even, it is broadcasted in the early morning and seemed that the audiences are mostly adolescents, in fact, that time is the time for school but they appear to jump, sing, dance, and shout out hysterically. It seems that they consider such crowded music important instead of going to school. They tend to be happy being in the crowded people at musical entertainment rather than being at school. They feel unwell-rounded if they are not being there; in contrast, they feel bored when they are being at school. It is not merely because of willing to see the artists but it is more to uncontrolled psychological behavior.

What is then now, are teachers and lecturers not able to provide such situation in order to make their students feel at home when they are being at school? We do not think so. The thing is that both teachers and lecturers are not able to utilize and teach music as literary discourse; even they never provide music in learning process. In fact, ‘music has been successfully applied to ESL learning, both in an early childhood education setting and a middle school setting’ (Howard Research, 2009). It is not then surprisingly that we see most students run away to the situation where they can meet musical entertainment, artists, and new relationships. It is not exclusively their false but we are; both teachers and lecturers.

C. Solution Discussion

After focusing on the problem above, we know that it is a responsible for both teachers and lecturers to trigger an effort to the solution. In the case of solution, we do not merely talk about the pattern of its solution but it should be more comprehensive and developed strategy in order to make vary in the term of ‘How To’. Dealing with this, we would like to present some strategies in providing methods for teaching music as literature in the class room because Vygotsky stated that the real learning is when teachers are able to provide new concepts that out of the students’ understanding. Before going through the strategies, it is better for the teachers to understand some points concerning the teacher’s competency as follows:

  • Teacher should have understanding on Literature; Types, Content and Its Function.
  • Teacher should have understanding on Music as Literature.
  • Teacher should have understanding on Music Influences; Brain, Mind, Emotion, and Willing.
  • Teacher should have Sense of Music.
  • Teacher should be able to stimulate and penetrate Student’s Existence through Music (Classical, Pop, Reggae, Rock, Ska, Jazz, Blues, Dangdut, etc.)
  • Teacher should be able to provide Messages from Music.
  • Teacher should be able to transfer the Power of Music into the Students’ Real Life.

Those  points above are very important to the teachers in applying the strategies. The followings are the practical strategies of teaching Music as Literature:

a. Providing Meaningful Input

When we talk about input then we refer to a Comprehensible Input. Dealing with the Input, there are some things that should be put into account as Comprehensible Input.

Authentic Material.

Authentic Material does not mere refer to original material but also it should refer to autonomous material. Here, we are talking music as an authentic material means that the material should be from local where the students learn. In this step, we provide students with local English Music which is of course gathered or made by own teacher’s creativity. Teacher can record his or her voice in a lyric or s/he may record someone else’s voice then presenting it to the students. The recorded voice should be clear and the lyric should contain or tell about local life of society where the students live or it may contain a folktale from the local.

Teacher is an Input.

The most efficient way to provide comprehensible input is to show teacher as an input. Teacher is the best input for his/her students; s/he can orally present his or her lyrics in songs by performing them directly. In this step, teacher can use any music tool in performing the lyrics of his or hers. In this case, teacher should have good or ideal voice in singing the lyrics. Do not perform this way if the teacher does not have good voice to present because again that the voice should be clear even more the lyrics should be interesting in order to gain the students’ interest on the lyrics. So, the teacher can sing clearly some lyrics or chunks of the lyrics by expression.

Multimedia as an Input.

In learning process, it is important to involve multimedia as the tool of learning. There are many kinds of media that the teacher can use to present any literary circle. Let say an audio visual with an In-Focus. Teacher can use this to present lyrics with a singer for example. By doing this, students will be able to listen to and see how lyrics are heard and how the singer is expressing the lyrics. By listening to and seeing the singer, students can get some comprehensible inputs as the intakes. They can get many messages by doing this. They can also get to know the lyrics influence their soul and motivate them in learning process.

b. Providing Meaningful Output

After doing the first step that the students have done, the next is to be the thing of getting a meaningful output. Students are supposed to produce meaningful output to indicate that they are being in your class and role. Bring them to the next step of your purpose that is to let them produce the meaningful output. In this step, there are some points to put into account:

Getting the students to work on things that matter.

The indicator that the students are with you is that they are able to work on things of what you have primarily presented. As a meaningful output, it is better to let the students to do or perform things of what they have seen or listened to. The better the students perform the things the better they get meaningful output.

Letting the students to have the chance to participate in the production of knowledge.

It is not sufficiently enough to just get the meaningful input, the students need to participate to learn or practice those things to produce knowledge. They should use language in meaningful interaction in order to learn the things. Teacher should get the students participate in using language in interaction. In this case, that the students should be able to perform the lyrics and sing or express the lyrics in their own way. By doing this, students will learn the language by using literature and produce knowledge of it as the meaningful output.

Getting the students to share something in terms of what they have got.

In this step, teacher asks the students to share something. We are sure that when the students have performed or sung the lyrics in their own ways, they must have something to share with. Over all, the students get comprehensible input to meaningful input, they get meaningful output to produce the knowledge then based on the knowledge they have got, and they will be able to share their knowledge of what music is, how the lyrics influence on their brain, how music can motivate them in learning, and how to share it to someone else they meet in interaction.

c. Providing Language Focused Learning

In order to provide a language that focuses on learning, a classroom should provide the opportunity to practice the language. In this step, teacher can provide various ways to get the students practice the language of performing the lyrics. There are some different ways to get this done:

Focusing on sounds, intonation, and stress of the lyrics.

Music as literature absolutely can improve students’ pronunciation. By listening to the lyrics presented, they can hear the intonation, stress, and sounds. In this step, teacher provides the opportunity for the students to focus on the three items. Let them immerse in to the melody by hearing the intonation, stress, and sounds of the lyrics.

Listening to particular words or phrases.

After focusing on the sounds, intonation, and stress, now the time to listen to particular words or phrases in the lyrics. Ask the students to point out what particular words or phrases they have got and then ask them to write them down as glossary.

Hearing and Repeating Behaviorism.

The next step is to sound off all particular words or phrases that they have got and then ask them to repeat after the teacher. By doing this way, they are indirectly practicing how to spell some words or phrases in a good sound, intonation, and stress. Teacher can make directly correctness as soon as they make mistakes.

Expressing discourse matter.

The last step in this language focused learning is to ask the students to express the discourse matter. This means that the students will use the language of lyrics in their daily life of conversation. In other words, they should be able to listen to some lyrics, perform them in their own way, get the messages, and then use them in their daily conversation in order to share something of what they have got from such literary circle.

d. Performing the Fluency Development

In general, the purpose of L2 and FL Learners in this scope is to show the development of their fluency. The fluency then, of course, should cover the four skills; Listening, Speaking, Reading, and writing. To make this cohesively real, it is important to refer to the sub skills. In these sub skills, the students can develop their comprehensible fluency in his/her four skills. Teacher should provide the sub skills of each skill in order to get the students integrated to the target language. In developing the fluency of Reading Skill for instance, teacher can ask the students to read chunks of available lyrics in their own melody. By doing this, the students will be able to pronounce words, make creative lyrics, and read lyric sentence for grasping the messages. Let say the other skill like Writing Skill, ask them to write their own lyrics and give chance to perform the lyrics in a melody. After that, ask them to say the messages and write them down in their own writing. The most point of this step is to get the students integrated into the target language by having fluency in four skills. Teacher should always get the students immerse into the target language by performing the sub skills for each skill because immersing is one of ways in making the students being in practical situation.

D. Possibility of Applying the Solution

François Duc de La said ‘It is easier to be wise for others than for ourselves’. Again, suggestions could be efficient when they are successful to apply. All strategies that have been explained are only suggestion. It will be successful if it is applicable in learning process and it has corroboration.

Even though the strategies seem to be easy but we still need cooperation in both teacher and students in order to make those strategies successful. If we refer to the possibility of applying the strategies, we then might say that all strategies will have significant success for each item of the strategy. Providing meaningful input and output, providing language focused learning, and performing the fluency development will bring the students in a practical situation when they are learning literature, in this case, music.

Meaningful input will make the students understand to what the importance of music is in motivating them. How authentic materials, teachers, and multimedia will become their meaningful input in learning music as literature. They can understand that music as literature is important to develop their ability in learning languages. Meaningful output is the indicator of having meaningful input. Students are able to work on things that they have seen, students have the opportunity to participate in producing knowledge, and students are able to share something of what they have got. All these capabilities will enable them to perform in their own way, enable them to get knowledge and share their knowledge to the others. They will experience something significant, they feel guided in such situation of learning literature and they feel being in independent in doing what have taught to them. The points of language focused learning will enable the students in using the language as the result of learning music as literature. They will be guided directly step by step use of the language. Through the steps, the students will start using the language. From the first step that is to focus on sounds, intonation, and stress will enable them to distinguish the three items which are important in pronunciation. The second step; listening to particular words or phrases will enable the students to grasp any important or key word in the lyric as the message and of course the words or phrases will be their new vocabularies. The third step is to hear and repeat what teacher said. This will enable students to correctly pronounce some words. Repetition is important to make them familiar with the correct pronunciation and also will enable them to efficiently save those pronounced words in their memory. The last step is to express discourse matter. This will enable the students to use the particular words or phrases in interaction or conversation; they know how to use the language appropriately based on the messages of what they have found in the lyrics. They are able to deliver the messages to the others as sharing to.

Finally, the last purpose of learning literature by using music is to develop their ability in four skills and sub skills. The students will be able to listen to the lyrics in melody by focusing on the sounds, intonation, and stress. They are also able to speak by using the language based on the messages they have got from the lyrics. It is not just being able to listen to and speak or use the language orally but they will be able to read the lyrics in order to get the gist of messages and also they are able to write the messages down to improve their writing skill.

E. Closing

As stated that mostly students are more interested in outside music entertainment and this situation should be put into account for the teachers in order to get the students become interested in the class room by teaching practical literature using music. We can conclude that music is important and successfully taught in EFL. Teaching music as literature by using Practical Technique will enable students to get some messages from it and will become their ability to communicate the messages and apply them in their daily life of conversation. Teaching literature practically will make the students enjoyable in learning it in the context of EFL because the students are truly involved in the situation of learning. This paper suggests the teachers to teach literature in practical way of learning and music might be good way in teaching literature. This really motivates and encourages students in learning Literature.

LANGUAGE, CULTURE, AND THOUGHT

A. IntroductionSOCIOLINGUISTICS
      The way we see and think the realm will indicate who we are in midst of entire world. Our existence is indeed so unique in terms of we are able to breathe or live, think, speak or utter something, live among creatures to interact using the symbols or language that we have in order to get various experiences. Clark said in Gentner & Meadow (2003) ‘Although we use language every day to talk about experience, language itself is far from being an exact representation of our experience’. Even though we have high philosophy in thinking of the realm, are able to utter phenomenon in good sentences, are able to represent an attitude, aptitude, and latitude as human beings who have culture but we still cannot represent the entire world in which we live.
      Less and more than 6.800 languages are spoken in this world by which the linguists and anthropologists come to debate such numerous languages in quantity but here we do not further explain or debate the quantity. The point is that each language represents its culture and thought so as they are being in existence in this world as the realm of society. Human communicate using languages or symbols, they think and behave base on the tradition they have that reflect each culture of language spoken. There are three points that will be put into account in terms of human existence generally in this world and community especially, namely Language, Culture, and Thought. These three terms really determine the civilization of human being. All human beings are not apart from the fact that they are being in these three terms in order to exist as living creature that is different from other creatures.
      Dealing with the topic, there will be some explanations of the three terms with its part of important supporting topic. The three terms will be sequentially explained till we can get the gist of the relationship among them so as to become a postulate in scientific logos in linguistics, sociology, philosophy, psychology research, anthropology, and other research disciplines. The point is that we are able to distinguish the three terms and each function in regarding to the work of linguistics area. This paper is presented to lecturers, teachers, and students who do want to know more about Language, Culture, Thought, and its relationship so that the three terms will be functionally applicable to daily life.

B. The Definition of Language
      The word LANGUAGE derives from Indo-European, which means “tongue, speech” through Latin; lingua, “tongues” and Old French; Langage. This word is sometimes used to refer to the codes, ciphers, and other types of communication systems which are artificially constructed like those used for computer programming. A language in this sense is a system of signs for encoding and decoding information.
      The following is some definitions of language:

  1. Language is a human capacity for acquiring and using complex systems of communication.
  2. Language is something that offers an exciting new perspective on the way people communicate.
  3. Language is a complex system of human communication that uses arbitrary signals (random), such as the voices, gestures, or written symbols.
  4. Language is the most important aspect in the life of all beings.
  5. Language is a symbol that we use to communicate with each other, and the rules that govern how we use it.
  6. Language is words, pronunciation, and the methods of combining them used and understood by the public.
  7. Language is a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by using conventional signs, sounds, gestures, or marks that have understood the meaning.
  8. Language is a system of formal signs and symbols (such as FORTRAN or a calculus in logic) including rules for the formation and transformation of expressions that can be accepted.
  9. Language is a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people from the same community or nation, the same geographical area, or the same cultural tradition.
  10. Language is communication with sound in a way unique to humans, using arbitrary sounds (random) in a conventional manner with conventional meanings (speech).
  11. Language is a system of linguistic signs or symbols considered abstractly (as opposed to speech).
  12. Language is any set or system of such symbols are used in a way that is more or less the same by a number of people, which thus makes it possible to communicate with each other to be easy to understand.
  13. Language is a system of symbols, signs, sounds, gestures formalized, or as used or understood as a means of communicating thoughts, emotions, etc. (mathematical language, sign language).

      All definitions of language stated above are, however, at least easy to understand to approach to what we think as language. To define the language in the form of words is very difficult, however, of some language definitions above, it can be concluded that the interpretation of the language is a tool of communication in the form of a sign or symbol, sound, movement or body language, and odor randomly transferred and which has been formalized or agreed by each community with both coder and decoder can mutually understand its meaning.
      Chomsky said “a language associates sound and meaning in a particular way; to have command of a language is to be able, in principle, to understand what is said and to produce a signal with an intended semantic interpretation” (Chomsky: 2006). He stated “language is an extra-human object, the standard view within major currents of philosophy of mind and language, and also put forth recently by prominent figures in neuroscience and ethology” (Chomsky: 2002). Language is not only such a symbol or sign that have meaning but it is more to how to interpret semantically. An interpretation is needed to conceptualize what a speaker utter in his or her own concept so as to understand or get the meaning. Cooper said “language is the most complex and sophisticated of our possession” (Cooper: 1973). In present modern situation, language is not used by human as an alive being but also things like computer, robot, and or digital machine can use language though they cannot develop in concept as human beings do. A language derives from one’s concept in thought and it will be interpreted as a meaning. The way in conceptualizing language is regarded to a philosophical work.

a) The Philosophy of Language
      Language should be and has been conceptualized in thought. A philosophy is one of disciplines that can work of such conceptualization. Philosophy is a discipline that study and investigate everything in common and specific that refers to principle or basic concept of thought of all being not exist yet, being exist, and will be being exist which is its existence is referring to the noble and wise goals. If we try to connect a philosophy and language then we deal with a Language Philosophy which is a branch of philosophy in which philosophers attempt to analyze, elucidate, and investigate certain crucial linguistics concepts such as meaning, reference, and truth (Cooper: 1973).
      In this correlation, the philosophers tried to analyze what are employed by the linguists. The linguists concern with and focus on the language while the philosophers are on analyzing certain or crucial concept of a language. When someone is speaking about something then we will think or ask “what does it mean?” This enforces us to describe the meaning of what is being spoken and we try to analyze and elucidate in our own concept referring to the spoken word. Each community has each philosophy by which a ‘meaning’ will be varying in each aspect of speech. We may also differ a ‘meaning’ from the point of view of cultural case. One’s culture will be different to another since another one has a probability in elucidating a concept of his or her culture. Hudson approaches to meaning by underlining two approaches namely Relativism and Determinism. He lines Relativity as a Cultural Relativity which refers to the difference of language or non-language in culture. Based on this view then we can say that there is a non-linguistic aspect in culture (Hudson: 1980) that can arise a different meaning for each cultural background. The view of the influence of a language on thought which is the statement of Determinism. There must be a certain thing of a spoken word or sentence that can influence the way of one’s thought. The influence then will become certain meaning of each listener who is listening to it and of course; it is based on listener’s cultural background or his/her linguistic items. Let’s say the different culture between Torajanese and Mamasanese. Lexically in Isogloss, when people of Toraja use the word kamu’ (with an apostrophe) then it is a polite way of a pronoun (you) to a superior. In contrast with Torajanese, people of Mamasa use the word iko to a superior as a polite way of a pronoun (you). Dealing with this lexical use, it is really impolite to say iko to a superior for people of Toraja unless it is used to an inferior.
      We still concern with the approaching to a meaning, Cooper puts three terminologies in dealing with a meaning. He firstly puts the approach as Verificationism; it is the theory according to which giving the meaning of a sentence is simply describing the ways in which it would be verified (Cooper: 1973). Although he takes this theory on his book but he is rather disagree with it but he is precisely with another theory of a model of verification namely The Principle of Verification. This theory states that there is no sentence will have a meaning except one is able to show the way to test its truth or falsity. This theory does actually describe a meaning empirically rather than simply describing a meaning through only the behavior or to what is uttered. The second is Emotivism which is a meaning since it refers to the response of an emotional utterance. In the other words, a meaning can appear out of a psychological activity such as emotional expression. The last is Paradigms and Polarity Case. A meaning that concerns with a freedom of the will is called Paradigm case. In order to understand further this concept, it is important to observe attentively the case of marriage at certain area in Indonesia. The people of Minangkabau are only tribe who are in contrast with other tribes in Indonesia in terms of courtship. Casually, in asking in marriage; a male’s family should do asking in marriage to a female’s family. This is a general tradition for any tribe of people of Indonesia but in Minangkabau, the one who does asking in marriage is the female’s family. Concerning with a freedom of the will, people in Minangkabau will unhesitatingly do such expression or act as long as it is acted in courtship context of Minangkabau. It will be absolutely different and incompatible to the situation when a person from different tribe who lives in Minangkabau does his or her own cultural tradition in which a male’s family will ask in marriage to female’s family, the fact that male’s family will hesitatingly do it. His family, of course, will consider such action or expression when they want to do it in the society of Minangkabau but by their own knowledge and a freedom of the will, they could unhesitatingly do it in Minangkabau and we all should admit it that it is valid. If God as human Creator does not appreciate human free willingness then human beings will be defenselessly in terms of finding out their bride or bridegroom. But with knowledge in human thought that they should have an effort to do so as the freedom of the will besides only praying then they realize that they have freedom of the will and God indeed appreciates it at all. In line with this Paradigm Case, the concept of Polarity will focus on a Polar Case. By the name of Polarity that means opposite to will arise the case of meaning. The word Polarity is understood as an opposite meaning to one another. In the other words, there must be a meaning that is in polar opposite to another meaning. For example, the word probable is in polar opposite to the word certainty (Cooper: 1973). If we say head then we also say that there must be a tail. The two words are seen as different meaning. Physically, it is true that they are different in shape, measure, and meaning but in unity of one body they are the same as to have function. We cannot say that head is more important than tail or vice versa; they should be seen as the two things that have function and cannot be separated to each other. The cases of Paradigm and Polarity point out the meaning as different understanding. But although it is so, we should understand that meaning is relative to the way of one thinks of something.

b) The Sense of Language in Speech
      Cohen stated in McKay and Hornberger (2009) ‘a speech act is a functional unit in communication’. Speech becomes the central of a language function by which human give information and express meaning through a language. Piaget said that adults do speech is to convey ideas or information and it is social (Lund: 2003) but children do not convey information; they are only using the words as what they have heard before. By these two different ways in using speech as an interaction, we will see the sense of a language. We can say that the sense of a language refers to the way to feel utterances in order to understand meaning and keep significantly relationship. The case of sense of a language is also showed by Schoeck when he tried to investigate the sense of using Envy and Jealousy. Here are the lines of his:

…envy is present when there is ‘mortification and ill-will occasioned by the contemplation of superior advantages.’ On the other hand, envy may simply mean that one wishes one might do the same as someone else. The first definition of envy as a verb is most specific: ‘To feel displeasure and ill-will at the superiority of (another person) in happiness, success, reputation, or the possession of anything desirable.’ (Schoeck: 1966)

‘Jealous’ and ‘jealousy’ are given detailed treatment by the Oxford English Dictionary. Obviously ‘jealous’ at first denoted simply an intense or highly excited emotional state, and then came to include a craving for the affection of someone else. Later it came to designate the fear of losing another person’s affections, just like ‘jealous’ in the modern sense. Sometimes ‘jealous’ has the sense of ‘envious,’ as in: ‘It is certain that they looked upon it with a jealous eye.’ Earlier there was also an English term ‘jealous glass,’ meaning the frosted glass used for groundfloor windows, analogous to the French jalousie. But the principal meaning of ‘jealousy’ remains the passionate endeavour to keep something that is one’s own by right. In complete contrast to the envious man, therefore, one may postulate a man of jealous disposition whose mind is at rest once he knows that he is free of rivals. (Schoeck: 1966)

      Using words in a speech means we express the sense of its meaning. We sometimes confuse how to use certain words in a speech when the words come to be applied in a different utterance. Let’s say the words to remember and to remind. Mostly language users are still confusing in using the words in a speech. We tend to say “please remember me to bring you the book” instead of “please remind me to bring you the book”. The way we feel those words is rather skeptic. This is because of the concept in the thought that we have made all this time. We might know their different meaning but we still confuse when we are going to use them in a speech. So, the sense of a language should be the basic concept in dealing with a speech.
When we express something then we use language to express it. Since speech is central to the proposed functional language system, it is necessary to take note of the nature of speech production and speech perception, as well as the general role of speech (Lieberman, 2002). According to the received view of linguistic communication, the central function of language is to enable a speaker to reveal his or her thoughts to a hearer (Gauker, 2003). Language expression is not only verbal but also non verbal. People who want to express something by using language in both verbal and non-verbal of course have reason why they want to communicate it. Language is the only tool in speaking and communicating or expressing what we want to do. As King stated ‘whatever our views about language- strict or liberal, traditional or progressive – it is abundantly clear that language is at the centre of all of the activities we connect’ (Demers: 1986) to each other. At least there are four main reasons why people want to communicate (Verspoor & Sauter: 2000) as follow:

  1. People want to inform someone of something
  2. People want to get information from someone
  3. People want to get someone to do something
  4. People want to express one’s attitude about something

      What they want to do is only to intertwine the relationship and desire to maintain it for a long term communication. Speaking and Expressing are fundamentally different. Speaking is the ability of a person in spelling letters and uttering words, phrases, and sentences by involving linguistic competence. Expressing is the ability to act a speech or communicate the discourse or language function by involving linguistic performance in a nuance of a language. Speaking refers to the knowledge in thought while expressing refers to both knowledge and emotion. Most people are able to speak but in fact, they are not able how to express appropriately in communication. The hearers still feel like confusing and even they feel aggrieved or angry after hearing what those are speaking. They just speak what they have in their thought without understanding emotionally the interlocutor.
      Expression involves speech act ability. Speech act refers to a language function and of course this pervades social life. Just as language use pervades social life, the elements of social life constitute an intrinsic part of the way language is used (Krauss & Chi). How language used in daily life will become the factor in relationship among people. Using language as the tool of communication is not just the way of mere communication. It should involve the taxonomy of speech. Austin had distinguished three kinds of action within each utterance as follows:

  • Locution

The physical act of producing an utterance. What is defined here is actually about the concept in thought of meaning. In other words, the form of Locution is limited to a mere understanding cognitively in mind and it has not been uttered but it is still being in the thought and might be in a shape of word or sentence. Cohen stated in McKay and Hornberger (2009) that Locution or Propositional Meaning is the literal meaning of the utterance.

  • Illocution

The act that is committed by producing an utterance. When we utter the concept in speech form then we do an Illocution. We act to produce the utterance; that is the point of an Illocution which has five basic categories of verdictive, expositive, exercitive, behabitive, and commissive (Searle: 1979). Cohen said as the social function that the utterance or written text has.

  • Perlocution

The production of an effect through locution and illocution. For example, the execution of an order by the addressee (Renkema: 2004). In other words, Perlocution appears just because the effect of the concept and speech uttered. Cohen explains Perlocution as the result or effect that is produced by the utterance in that given context.
In expressing a language or acting a speech then we must refer to a philosophy of a language that has been exposed previously above. This is important to understand before performing the speech or expression because this contains a philosophical utterance as Searle stated the study of speech acts seemed to lie clearly on the side of the philosophy of language, and until the past few years most of the research on speech acts was done by philosophers and not by linguists (Searle, 1979). That is why the nuance of language has the effect or influence of the hearers.

c) Language, Speech, and Thought
      Lund (2003) stated “Language is used both to communicate with others and to monitor our internal thoughts”. The definition of language has been explicitly rolled out before in many definitions. A language is general; any tool of communication but speech is the unit of a language by which language is structured, arranged and uttered through capability of human being to use the language. The way someone acts a speech is really determined by human thought. Brain has a mind to think about thinking and “Mind” refers to the part of you that is capable of thought. The process of thinking creates thought; so, thought is the deposit of a mind. According to Bohm, thought is nothing more than a form of reflex and conditioning. When we are thinking of something then we reflexively churn the deposit and conditioned various kinds of concept in the thought. The ancients simply decided that thoughts came from the mind and the heart. Everything we think is becoming a thought in the mind which belongs to the brain. So, the ‘mind’ is just our everyday way of saying the ‘brain’.
      The relation of these three terms is really unique and interesting. The reason, all living things philosophically have a language. Animals and plants are also having language; symbols which are the language but they are not able to use it in terms of acting a speech to communicate. Another case with human beings, they have language or symbols and they are able to use it to communicate in conveying information to understand. Human languages are known to be much more uniform than was at one time thought, which may be one reflection of their neurological basis (Trimble: 2007). This is however the thing that differs to animals and plants. Previously stated that human has language to communicate and human has brain in which thoughts deposited in mind. Thought covers a number of different mental activities (Hudson: 1980) which is the concept in human mind. When human beings try to communicate, they will have capability to act a speech in any interaction that they make because one feature that sets human communities apart from animal communities is the use of language (Lund: 2003). The use of language refers to the capability of acting a speech in interaction. Language is the tool and speech is the way to use the tool. No matter how good the tool is, but if we do not know and cannot use it properly based on the function then the tool is absolutely meaningless. That is so, although the language is good but if we do not have ability to use it in a speech act then it will be meaningless at all. This ability to act a speech is actually determined by maturity of mind in which thoughts exist. Amajian (2001) stated that speech act is an act performed in uttering expressions. Dealing with uttering expressions then we should pay attention to the act of uttering sounds, syllables, words, phrases, and sentences from a language. So, speech act emphasizes the functions, aesthetics, and ethics of a language production. Thoughts which are the basic deposit in mind will enable brain to command nerves of articulators to construct and utter those speech items. Mind is the representative of thoughts; a speech act is the representative of a language and it represents one’s culture.

C. The Definition of Culture
      What actually do the people think of the entire world, the other people, the things around them, and even of themselves? How do people respond to what they see, think, and perceive and what will be the effect on them? How do people behave based on their thought?
      All the questions above will bring us to the complexity of the term of Culture. It is a truism that each individual has a cultural diversity, by which they express his/her thought. Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952) stated ‘culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e. historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, and on the other as conditioning elements of further action’. We do not explain a culture in the pattern of one’s perception but we should try to put it across into wide definition in order to get and cover the widest range of what people think about the nature of culture itself. From the 18th century, debates surrounding the merits and demerits of ancient and modern culture one can trace the developing historical understanding from a limited awareness of the historicity of culture and science to the full recognition of the historical nature of art and knowledge (Oergel: 1964). So, we will cover all terms deal with culture in this paper.
      The following definitions of a culture will vary in understanding but they basically have been included in the previous definition:

  1. “Most social scientists today view culture as consisting primarily of the symbolic, ideational, and intangible aspects of human societies. The essence of a culture is not its artifacts, tools, or other tangible cultural elements but how the members of the group interpret, use, and perceive them. It is the values, symbols, interpretations, and perspectives that distinguish one people from another in modernized societies; it is not material objects and other tangible aspects of human societies. People within a culture usually interpret the meaning of symbols, artifacts, and behaviors in the same or in similar ways.” Banks, J.A., Banks, & McGee, C. A. (1989)
  2. “Culture: learned and shared human patterns or models for living; day- to-day living patterns. These patterns and models pervade all aspects of human social interaction. Culture is mankind’s primary adaptive mechanism” (Damen, L :1987 p. 367).
  3. “Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another.” (Hofstede, G: 1984 p. 51).
  4. “By culture we mean all those historically created designs for living, explicit and implicit, rational, irrational, and nonrational, which exist at any given time as potential guides for the behavior of men.” (Kluckhohn, C., & Kelly, W.H: 1945)
  5. “Culture is the shared knowledge and schemes created by a set of people for perceiving, interpreting, expressing, and responding to the social realities around them” (Lederach, J.P: 1995 p. 9).
  6. “A culture is a configuration of learned behaviors and results of behavior whose component elements are shared and transmitted by the members of a particular society” (Linton, R: 1945 p. 32).
  7. “Culture…consists in those patterns relative to behavior and the products of human action which may be inherited, that is, passed on from generation to generation independently of the biological genes” (Parson, T: 1949 p. 8).
  8. “Culture has been defined in a number of ways, but most simply, as the learned and shared behavior of a community of interacting human beings” (Useem, J., & Useem, R: 1963 p. 169).
  9. “The ecological matters of life and death are relevant to a proper understanding of what we collectively value, believe, seek, avoid, and do: that is, our culture.” (Vliert: 2009)
  10. “Culture is as shared knowledge – not a people’s customs and artifacts and oral traditions, but what they must know in order to act as they do, make the things they make, and interpret their experience in the distinctive way they do.” (Quinn: 1987)
  11. “Culture-meaning classical or high culture founded on a concept of creation and the life of the spirit-was a major weapon in the state’s armory in its mission to civilize and socialize its citizens.” (Silverman: 1999)
  12. “However we define culture, most anthropologists agree that it has to do with those aspects of human cognition and activities that are derived from what we learn as members of society, keeping in mind that one learns a great deal that one is never explicitly taught.” (Monaghan & Just: 2000)

      It seems to be so complex to understand but we will try to gain an understanding that Culture, however, covers all things concerns with patterns, behaviors, symbols, distinctive achievements of human groups, embodiments in artifacts, ideas, values, systems, actions, knowledge, microorganisms, belief, art, law, morals, and custom. All things that affect on human beings and affect on the things are categorized as a Culture.

a) The Linguistic and Cultural Relativity
      By imaging that almost 7000 languages used in this world today will at least remind us a hypothesis of Sapir and Whorf about Linguistic relativity. Chomsky even said to approach to Linguistic or Language Relativity – I believe without exception, depart from the commonsense notion in several ways; these departures also affect the concepts of knowledge or understanding of language, use of language, rule of language, rule-guided linguistic behavior, and others (1986). A linguistic relativity hypothesis says that some particular aspect of language influences some particular aspect of cognition. In the other words, some linguistic items can influence the way one thinks of. Because this is just a hypothesis then we should give a test in order to raise the truth of it. Let’s take an example of this; in Bahasa Makean Barat, Halmahera Selatan, there are three levels in choosing words in terms of acting a speech to a superior, peer, and inferior. Put an example of inviting; “Mari Makan” (Let’s have meal), people in Makean Barat use ‘fajou’, ‘falakut’, and ‘fa’ to mean ‘makan’ (to eat). When children and adolescents want to invite adult to have meal, they should say ‘Ino tē fafajou’. At the level of peer, they say ‘Ino tē fafalakut’ and when adolescent or adult invite children to have meal, they say ‘Ino tē fafa’. The case of linguistic relativity will arise when children use ‘Ino tē fafa’ to invite adult to have meal and mostly adult will react emotionally and cognitively. Adults think that that child is impolite and his/her parents should teach and educate him/her to act an appropriate speech. This is a kind of Linguistic Relativity in terms of Lexicon.
      The same case happened when I was being in Balikpapan, Kalimantan Timur. I am a Torajanese and of course I am from Sulawesi. Mostly people in Sulawesi have a concept of Taxi as a public transportation which is a brand of a type of Sedan. When I first arrived in Balikpapan, my uncle asked me out to look around. I asked “What transportation should we take to leave?” and my uncle replied “We will get a Taxi”. It was accidently becoming above the common in my mind to leave for looking around by Taxi and of course it would be so expensive, I thought. It was just a moment that then the ‘Taxi’ came to picked us up. It was happening next that I was so surprised because what they meant by a ‘Taxi’ was a Microlet which I knew as ‘Pete-pete or Angkot’ as my concept in my mind. I had time to think that people in Balikpapan were categorized as middle to upper economy level.
      Next example of linguistic relativity is the linguistic item concerns with Phonology. In 2002, I was in Surabaya for an International Seminar. The next day after arrival, I was looking for socks and I found a store nearby my hotel. When I bargained; spoke in Makassarese dialect, the seller was accidently startling then said “Lo.. lo.. lo.. lo… Mas dari Makassar ya?” (Ough.. ough.. ough.. ough… Are you coming from Makassar?) “Iya” (Yes) I said. She replied “Pantes, ya” (No wonder). So, what the gist here is that firstly she did not know actually where I come from but she directly confirmed “Are you coming from Makassar?” This means that she had a concept about Makassarese dialect so she knew that I was coming from Makassar. Second is that when I responded “Yes” to her confirmation she made and she replied “No wonder”. The case is that she had a concept in her mind about Makassarese and she reinforced her thought by replying “No wonder”. She knew that so a Makassarese was.
      Besides Linguistic Relativity or Linguistic Diversity, there is another relativism concerned with culture; Cultural Relativity or Cultural Diversity or Cultural Relativism. Cultural relativity states that all customs, beliefs, morals, norms and or ethics are relative to the individual within his/her own social context. In other words, a concept of “right” and “wrong” and “may” or “may not” are culture-specific; what is considered moral in one society may be considered immoral in another cultural background, and, since no universal standard of morality exists, no one has the right to judge another society’s customs. Herder in Sikka (2011) said ‘different societies and ages hold distinct systems of belief regarding what is good and bad, right and wrong, and that there are no objective, transhistorical, and transcultural criteria for judging between these systems’. In this sense of cultural relativity, a culture is thought as a paradigm case which has freedom of the will. Whatever someone sees, thinks, perceives, and behaves, it is all about the freedom of one’s will. No one can deny or judge it as wrong thought or custom. Let’s say me; I am a Torajanese and I of course have culture. I was born in other region that brings me into another concept of thought because I do not grow up in Toraja but in Kolaka where indigenous people are Tolakinese. People of Tolaki then of course have different way of life, thinking, philosophy, etc. I grew up in those cultural items and I realize that many things are really far from my ethnicity; Toraja. I do then free to manifest my own thought, philosophy, belief, custom, and things that I have grown in it up. My original custom as Torajanese has gone long time ago and I am not with some beliefs of Torajanese but I do appreciate them as diversity of a culture.
      Cooper (2004) stated ‘diversity can be seen as constitutive of freedom to the extent it makes it practically possible for people to choose and live out different kinds of lives. At the same time, social diversity functions as an expression, product and symbol of freedom – we read freedom’s presence in the range of life choices that exist. But diversity also works to define freedom’s subjects: the different social groups who pursue liberation through the lifting of restrictions, the abolition of exploitative or oppressive relations, and through accessing the resources necessary in order to flourish’. Individual cultural diversity is really complex if we see it in the narrow point of view, so we should leave our culture behind then we try to figure out what are the same as ours and what are the difference. In order to be more standing up on our culture, we should lift the restriction up to the concept of diversity. One point of a diversity or distinction is that we concern with a freedom but here is not a freedom of uncontrolled system. We still have something that control the freedom itself by which we are free but still controlled based on the norm and aesthetic of the environment of social culture. An uncontrolled freedom will bring us to an anarchy that can break the country up.

b) Culture and Systems of Thought
      As it has been stated above that culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one category of people from another (Hofstede, G: 1984). There is actually the relationship between Culture and thought and it is applicable to the way of how one lives. Whatever we do, we think, we behave, there must be the influence of thought concerning with what do. When we contact to the environment then we will soon contact to culture and when we contact to the culture then we start to think and respond to what we have seen, perceived, and heard. Our brain will be active to process it in mind then become a thought of a concept. As Styles (2005) said ‘to enable us to interact safely with real objects in the environment, the brain encodes and makes available many sources of information about the properties of objects’. Culture is the collective programming of the mind; Culture is as shared knowledge; Culture is the concept of nature. Mostly these sentences are concerned with a system of cognitive. It makes obvious that indeed culture influence cognitive or the way of thinking and vice versa; cognitive can influence the culture by which culture experiences the changing so as to make new culture of society. The changing of the thought system is very influenced by an intercultural environment. The system is changed when any culture is seen and perceived that can lead to a behavior changing. This needs a process of approaching and learning because each man has previous concept about the way s/he thinks of, behaves, reveals, and any other way of life.
      Sikka (2001) argued ‘Languages are transmitted across generations, and what is transmitted along with them is a way of thinking: a set of beliefs, values, and judgments, a particular, bounded perspective on the world’. The system of thought is the way of thinking itself; culture is the result of the system of thought which contains the way of thinking and it is happened over and again so as to shape perspective to the new concept of behavior. When a behavior is formed with its concept in thought then it will be a custom of life that we call Culture. Whatever comes to human five sense will be received by cognitive then process it to create new concept on an object seen, perceived, and learned then the result will influence the previous concept in mind to create new concept. The influence then will depend on the strength of the previous thought.

D. Delta Connection of Language, Culture, and Thought.
      Most of us usually just point out two terms concern with language, Culture, and Thought. We just correlate the two terms; Language and Culture, and ignore another one; Thought.

THE STATUS OF PHILOSOPHY IN THE REGISTER OF RELIGION

In this life, people tend to consciously or unconsciously seek the ultimate truth. The process of finding is based on human ignorance about whom and what human beings are in the world. There have been many ways in which the human being does in terms of looking for the truth to be understood. Some people have found what he regarded as the truth, some also have found it but still vague, and some did not find it at all. But in reality, they are all still just looking and looking for what he regards as the ultimate truth.
In this truth-seeking process, humans do it in three common ways, namely through Science, Philosophy, and Religion. When a man seeks truth in a scientific way – research, empiric, and experiment, structural, and pragmatic means that humans search for truth by means of science. When people seek the truth through life, experience of life in which humans wandering his intellect or mind or logic radically or rooted and integrally and universally and then mixed with the knowledge and the results are considered wise, beautiful and can be seen as a general truth and accepted then it means that human seeks the truth by way of philosophizing. Further, when people search for the truth by understanding the scriptures and is usually confirmed intuitively by revelation then it means that people are looking for truth through religion. Contrary to what is considered as scientific truth, wise, beautiful, and based on the revelation, sometimes there are some people who just seek the other truth for himself regarded as the truth, this is called as the truth of man. However, any attempt to seek the self truth or attempt to justify itself bound by the general public, are still regarded as untruth and unaesthetic in life with respect to social attitudes in interaction and mutual respect. If we look at the cases that occurred in recent years, there are so many inter-religious misunderstandings happened simply because it is caused by a misunderstanding of the religious perceptions.
In connection with the above cases, the question naturally arises as why this happened and how humans interpret the truth in general and individually without having to control the norm regardless of the community. Cases like this occurred because people do not understand what the meaning and the status of Philosophy are. In the philosophy of religion book written by Dr. H Rosdjidi, stated that a Philosophy is to think, according to William Temple Philosophy is to require knowledge to understand. Accordingly, the writer tries to explain what philosophy is, who can philosophize, why philosophy is important, how should we philosophize, when and where we should philosophize. The sixth scientific questions will be associated with a religious context, so, no more stray insights from philosophy and religion corridor itself.
Before discussing more about what the status of Philosophy are in the Register of Religion, then there is nothing better if we firstly understand what the meaning of Philosophy and Religion etymologically are.

Etymology and Meaning of Philosophy

The philosophy derives from the Greek , φιλοσοφία (philosophia) philo-“loving” + sophia “knowledge, wisdom,” from Sophi “wise, educated.”, Which literally means “love of wisdom”.
Some definitions of Philosophy:

  • Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those related to the knowledge of reality, existence, values, reason, mind, and language.
  • The word Philosophy means ‘Love of Wisdom’.
  • Philosophy is how one makes sense of a truth.
  • Philosophy is the only study that deals with the creation of the concept, which distinguishes it from science, logic, and art.
  • Bertrand Russell stated that Philosophy is in the middle between science and theology.
  • Philosophy is the art of reasoning about anything and about everything, and thus the lesson material anything and everything.
  • Heraclitus said: “The purpose of Philosophy is not to know the world, but to put people on the right path.”
  • “Philosophy studying the nature of existence, of man, and man’s relationship to existence …. In the realm of cognition, the special sciences are the trees, but philosophy is the soil which makes the forest possible.”-Ayn Rand, Filsafat, Siapa Yang Membutuhkannya (p. 2)The

American Heritage ® Dictionary of the English Language, said that philosophy are:

  • Love and pursuit of wisdom by intellectual means and moral self-discipline.
  • Investigation of the nature, causes, or principles of reality, knowledge, or values, according to logical reasoning rather than empirical methods.
  • A system of thought based on or involving questions like: Philosophy of Hume.
  • Critical analysis of fundamental assumptions or beliefs.
  • The disciplines presented in university curriculum of science and liberal arts, except medicine, law, and theology.
  • The logic discipline which consists of, ethics, aesthetics, metaphysics, and epistemology.
  • A set of ideas or beliefs relating to a particular field or activity, an underlying theory: the original Philosophy of advertising.
  • A system of values in which one lives: has an unusual philosophy of life.

Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, describes the philosophy as:

  • The academic discipline concerned with making explicit the nature and significance of ordinary and scientific beliefs and investigating the clarity of concepts through rational argument as to their prejudice, implications, and the linkages, especially, the rational investigation of the nature and structure of reality (metaphysics), the resources and the limits of knowledge (epistemology), the principles and import of moral judgment (ethics), and the relationship between language and reality (semantic).
  • Specific doctrines relating to issues of some specific individual or school (the philosophy of Descartes).
  • Any system of beliefs, values, or principles.
  • Personal view or perspective.

From several explanations of philosophy above, I may conclude that Philosophy is a discipline or science of studying and reviewing all matters of a general nature and specific reference to the principle or concept of the premise of everything that has not been being, is being, and there will be being that leads to a more noble purpose and wise and contains values that is convinced as a truth.

Etymology and Meaning of Religion

If this should be reviewed etymologically then there are some opinions that find the word R-E-L-I-G-I-O-N is derived from several languages.
Some say that the word RELIGION comes from the Sanskrit, ‘a’ means ‘no’ and ‘gamma’ means ‘mess’. So RELIGION means not chaotic. This etymology founds that RELIGION is the rules that can liberate humanity from chaos faced in their lives, even before their death.
Some also said that the word RELIGION comes from Sanskrit, which has the root word ‘gam’ means ‘go’. Then it gets a prefix root word ‘a’ and the suffix ‘a’, then formed a-gam-a (agama – religious) meaning ‘the way’. This Etymology founds that religion is a way to achieve happiness.
Another opinion says that the word RELIGION comes from the Arabic, ‘al-din’. ‘Din’ means ‘law’ or ‘rule’ or ‘dutiful’ and ‘the day after’. The purpose of this etymology is that religion is people who are doing -din, the point is people are submissive and obedient to the rules and laws of God to find happiness in the hereafter.
Finally, some have argued that the word RELIGION comes from the Latin, ‘religere’ means ‘be careful’ or ‘religare’ which means ‘bound’. Based on this etymology, according to Winkler Prins in Algemene Encyclopaedia that anyone who is doing ‘-religious’ is the people who always feel bound by anything that is considered sacred. If it is said comes from the word meaning religere careful, so the meaning will be that people with the religion that is the person who always cautious with something that is considered sacred.
Based on the four etymological views above, they certainly make us confused and towards which the correct terminology to understand and follow. This can lead to an expert in comparison of religions in Indonesia, Mukti Ali, said “Perhaps no word is given by the understanding of the most difficult and the definition of the word other than religion.” Nevertheless, it is clear that a RELIGION is a RELIGION and RELIGION is a system of belief. In other words, religion is everything that is believed and for those who believe, it can bring calm, peaceful, and prosperity both in this present life and for the life to come.
Function of a Philosophy in Register of Religion
Once we understand what Philosophy is and its Position, then we will discuss what exactly the Functions of Philosophy in the register of Religion. It should be understood that the Register here is the words or terms used in the scope or specific professions and professionally used. Because as we will discuss the function of Philosophy in the register of Religion then we will go in scope relate to the function or Position of Philosophy. In other words, we will discuss how Philosophy can work well in the context of Religion which the people can better understand what the meaning of religion is and how the human becomes religious till to the implementation, people can really understand what they believe and how while they appreciated the beliefs of the others.
In Philosophy, we identify and study the semiotics and hermeneutics. Actually, these two terms are the core of the learning Philosophy. Both of these terms refer to the activity of thinking because philosophy itself is how humans think to approach the truth. Many things cannot be answered by science but can be answered by Religion Science because Science is positive that is applied and recognized up to now while Theology is absolute. Bertrand Russell said that between Science and Religion lies the Philosophy. Philosophy is speculative and Alternative because this science cannot be proven empirically, by research or experiments. Philosophy becomes a mediator between Science and Theology. In some respects, Science cannot answer some of the questions put by the Theology but Philosophy can answer even though it is not fully answered and the answers given by the Philosophy are the only form of alternative answers and it is not absolute answer.
In the Register of Religion, there are some things or terms that are difficult to understand by humans. Many cases cannot be understood by humans, and they cannot explain and prove empirically such as the nature of Sciences but Theology can answer it absolutely. To answer some questions or terms that exist in the register of Religion, except through revelation, it requires the Philosophy to concoct, predict, and try to answer the questions provided by the Theology. During this time, people wondered, looking out and searching for answers about what man is, how nature is created and who created it. With the Science of Philosophy, people can ask questions and provide answers that almost close to the absolute truth. Indeed, the essential truths can only be provided by Theology, but to get the answer to the truth it is necessary to process the Philosophy and interpreted through the study of Semiotics – if it is a symbolic – and through the study of hermeneutics – how to translate or interpret words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs that are within each Religion scriptures.
In the Register of Christianity there are some signs or symbols which at first glance cannot be understood by those who read them. There are several parables are also rather difficult to understand and explain by humans. In this regard, Science of Philosophy can answer them by the approaches of Philosophy. We can interpret the meaning of symbols or signs by the study of semiotics or semiology because this study is a special study of signs or symbols, function of symbols, relation to the other symbol up to how it generates symbolic meaning. Any attempt to interpret must be using the language and a language is a tool by which we can understand everything. Wittgenstein – developer of the theory of analytic philosophy – says that the expression of language is an expression of life. There are many expressions of the language contained in the Register of Religion really confusing to understand at first glance, but there is definitely an answer of what that confusing. Through expression of language we can understand. For example, in the Bible there are some expressions and symbol of numbers used as follow:

Then I heard what sounded like a voice among the four living creatures, saying, “A quart[a] of wheat for a day’s wages,[b] and three quarts of barley for a day’s wages,[c] and do not damage the oil and the wine!” (Rev 6:6)

Here is wisdom. He that has understanding let him count the number of the beast: for it is a man’s number; and its number is six hundred and sixty-six. (Rev 13:18)

But let not this one thing be hidden from you, beloved, that one day with the Lord is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day. (2Pet 3:8)

These phrases would be confusing and if they are interpreted (hermeneutics) incorrectly it will cause misunderstanding and confusion. This is where the position or function of the Philosophy plays at least.

In terms of figuring out the principles of the phenomenal reality of the world, people need to understand the philosophy that even though in the Science of Religion has provided the answer just is not detail and still vague in human understanding. In the Philosophy, a Greek philosopher named Herakleitos, argues that there is no any else in this world that the substance is pure, everything is always ‘looking into’, meaning that no one remains in the language of philosophy called ‘panta rhei’. He also said that everything is always in the process of becoming and changing. In principle of changes, Herakleitos assume that in the order of the universe (cosmos) that is a central principle of change is not on the reality of material objects but the cosmic order in which there is a human world where in the human world the ability to communicate verbally are in a central position. This Herakleitos’ opinion approaches the absolute truth with philosophizing. He said that in this world no one has the substance is Pure and absolute. It is true that everything in this world nothing is eternal and remains. However, in the Science of Religion answered that everything in the world is neither eternal nor immortal but only one can remain forever is His Word. Philosophy of Herakleitos’ certainly not wrong but it brings us closer to an understanding of the absolute truth. Philosophy here clearly has an important position in the Register of Religion.

Philosophy and religion are interrelated to one another, but we should not confuse the two into one understanding. Both of Sciences have a functional relationship where Philosophy is the only medium by which we can understand the things that exist in the register of Religion. Religion and Philosophy are different substantially, that is why the Philosophy is divided into some philosophies based on the religion background such as Philosophy of Christianity, Philosophy of Islam, Philosophy of Hindu, and Philosophy of Buddha.

The Status of Philosophy is very important in the Register of Religion. Philosophy poses the questions that cannot be answered by Science as well as provide answers approaching the absolute truth in the Theology. Two studies at the heart of Philosophy are helpful to provide insights with respect to the Register of Religion. The study of Semiotics Philosophy unmasked through the interpretation of signs or symbols and still touch to fit into the context of understanding of the Register of Religion. The study of Hermeneutics Philosophy becomes a tool of translators between humans and words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, and discourses and language expressions that are in the Register of Religion.
Not a single one is perfect until the time he is completed. Therefore, the author realizes that of course there are many deficits seen in this paper and need repairing of composition of standard paper writing, structure and grammar, proper use of the word because it might lack adequate vocabulary in the author’s repertoire, and philosophically also needed improvement. In short, the author takes the criticism and suggestions of the dear readers that can be used as a solid foundation in the making of further papers.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Suh Ahmad syadali, mudzakir.2004.filsafat umum. Bandung: Pustaka Setia
E-sword for Pocket PC. ___. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE.EXE). ____: ____
McWhorter, John. 2011. What Language Is (And What It Isn’t and What It Could Be). ___: Gotham.
Yandell, Keith E. 1998. Philosophy of Religion. ____: Routledge Illustration.
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20061209044523AAnMdm6
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/language
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiotics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiology_%28Gregorian_Chant%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiotics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiology_%28Gregorian_Chant%29
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philosophy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language
http://grammar.about.com/od/grammarfaq/f/whatislang.htm
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_language
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/language
http://www.answers.com/topic/semiology
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-philosophy.htm
http://www.atlassociety.org/what_is_philosophy
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/philosophy